Captive monkeys generic prednisone 5mg on-line allergy eye drops otc, in fact captive mammals of virtually all species including mice prednisone 20 mg on line allergy forecast virginia, are typi- cally obese compared to animals in the wild [57 buy prednisone with a mastercard allergy itchy skin, 58]. So how to think about the results in terms of which animals should be considered obese, which normal, which The Geroscience Hypothesis: Is It Possible to Change the Rate of Aging? Like many a clean and neat hypothesis before it, the reduced metabolism hypothesis crashed on the rocks of experimentation and biological complexity. A number of other simple physiological hypotheses were advanced by logic and slain by experimentation, including the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis [65, 66 ] and the advanced glycation end-products hypothesis [67, 68]. Several reports that restriction of sulfhydryl-containing amino acids in otherwise isocaloric diets extended mean and maximum longevity in the F344 rats were pub- lished in the 1990s, but in the early 2000s these studies were extended to several rat 14 S. Second, median longevity, though unrelated to total caloric intake, was related to the balance of macronutrients. Specically, mice lived longer when fed diets that were low in protein and high in carbohydrates. Whether the lengthened lifespan associated with reduced protein consumption was due to reduced consumption of specic amino acids as the earlier studies might suggest, was not investigated. It should be noted that this was a single study with a single mouse genotype with modest sample sizes for each of the 25 dietary/survival groups. Nevertheless when combined with the methionine restric- tion studies published earlier, and the invertebrate studies discussed below, it cer- tainly calls into question the traditional wisdom that calories not specic macronutrients are what modulate lifespan. The results were strikingly similar to ndings with respect to variation in replicative lifespan in 166 single gene deletion strains in yeast . The mouse results should be considered preliminary, as the number of individual lifespans per treatment and strain was small (N = 5 in one study, N = 10 12 in the other) and the strain results varied some- what between facilities. In addi- tion, because y and worm lifespans are short and large numbers of animals can be The Geroscience Hypothesis: Is It Possible to Change the Rate of Aging? The data are from 41 recombinant inbred lines derived from an original cross of 8 laboratory strains followed by divergent selection for alcohol sensitivity (Reproduced with permission from Liao et al. Austad laboratory rodents and invertebrates is an assumption that has yet to be validated. Both fruit ies and worms had previously been shown to respond to reduced food availability with longer life [85, 86]. In rodents, it is well-known what their natural diet consists of (seeds plus associated insect larvae) and there had been years of investigation into formu- lating healthy diets, even specialized breeding versus maintenance diets . The normal laboratory diet of fruit ies is an agar-base combination of yeast, sugar or molasses, cornmeal, and other carbohydrates . There is no true standard laboratory diet and the nutrient concentration of the food can vary as much as tenfold among laboratories. Flies typically eat only 1 2 g of food daily, so quantifying food consumption is technically challenging, although possible . Given the different nutrient concentrations of different laboratories standard diets, nutrient consumption of standard-fed ies can vary dramatically among laboratories. However as y nutrition and longevity studies became more sophisticated, experimental procedures also became more sophisticated. It has now been established that ies will compensate for nutrient density by altering overall consumption. One particularly rigorous study found that increasing nutrient density by vefold from a base diet less than doubled total food intake. Increasing nutrient density from ve- to tenfold above the base diet increased consumption only 33 % more, and increasing from 10 to 15-fold above the base diet did not alter food intake at all . To emphasize the diversity of y diets in use, the 15-fold higher density in this study is the standard diet in other studies. Now it is common for nutritional studies to include an array of food concentrations, both less than and more than, the standard diet for the lab. Fly research has shown most compellingly that macronutrient composition rather than calories alone has the most dramatic effect on longevity. The role of specic amino acids has not yet been completely claried, although as with laboratory rodents methionine appears to be a particularly important amino acid . Recently Piper formulated a chemi- cally dened diet for ies that should allow further renement of the relationship between nutrition and aging in this species . One particularly interesting discov- ery is that even the aroma of extra yeast is enough to shorten y lifespan . Nutritional research in ies has also illuminated a potentially serious confound in assessing genetic or even the pharmacological inuence on aging and longevity in studies that rely on ad lib feeding as virtually all do. The impact of a gene or a drug may be sensitive to dietary factors or may affect the amount of food eaten. Note, however, that the nutritional density of a normal diet varies dramatically among laboratories, such that what is considered a normal diet could affect whether the same mutation is a short-gevity or a longevity mutation and that at no food concen- tration is chico signicantly longer-lived than control ies on their optimal longevity diet (Redrawn from Clancy et al. As the food density of a normal diet in ies is completely arbitrary, the nding that this chico mutation extends life is a happenstance of a particular standard diet. Other labs would have observed the same mutation to be life-shortening under their standard condi- tions. As long as studies are performed over a broad range of food densities, this should not be a problem. However, genetic studies of longevity rarely examine a range of nutrient conditions. Worms can also be fed a chemically-dened, axenic diet , which avoids the problem of frank toxicity worms typically live much longer on an axenic versus an E. Surprisingly few worm studies use more than two feeding levels (control vs restricted) even though considerably more information can emerge from multiple feeding level studies . Several hundred worm genes signicantly extend life when wholly or partially inactivated. Given that the active forms of these genes were selected over millions of years of evolu- tion, this large number is surprising to say the least. It will be interesting if anything like this turns out to be true of other model organisms or whether this is a quirk of worm biology, perhaps due to the centrality of the dauer larval stage in its life his- tory. Still, some of the largest effects on worm longevity are still due to some of the earliest genes discovered to affect aging. Given that a complete review of the numer- ous genetic inuences on aging and longevity is beyond the scope of this chapter, I will focus on just the two that seem at this juncture to be the most robust. Subsequent mutations that reduce signaling through homologous pathways causing both dwarng and lengthened life were discovered in ies [95, 102 ] and mice [103 105]. Some evidence suggests that in more challenging circumstances the longevity effect may disappear or even be reversed [107, 108]. The evidence in mice deserves some special attention because in some ways it is weaker than in other model systems perhaps because the genetic tools are less robust but also possibly because the effect is less signicant in mice or in mammals. Another effect of disruption of the growth hormone receptor is reduced plasma insulin.
A crushed tail head allows chronic fecal important to be familiar with normal variations prednisone 40 mg sale allergy oil blend. Chronic cystic ovaries may change the cattle may act as if affected by nervous ketosis but fre- conformation appearance of many cows so that they quently are not purchase prednisone online pills allergy medicine not over the counter. Docile animals that become aggressive warrant consid- Temperament eration of nervous ketosis generic prednisone 10 mg with mastercard allergy medicine 180 mg, rabies, and other neurologic Temperament is the fourth component of habitus and diseases. From practical and medicolegal standpoints, it People unfamiliar with dairy cattle anticipate kicking is imperative that the clinician anticipates unpredic- as the major risk in handling cattle. Dairy cattle with newborn calves clinicians should be aware that a cow s head may be her should be approached cautiously because many people most dangerous weapon. Anyone who has been mali- have been injured or killed by apparently quiet cows ciously butted or repeatedly smashed by a cow or a that suddenly became aggressive to protect a calf. They should Entire herds of cattle or large groups of cattle within a be approached with extreme care or restrained in a herd that suddenly become agitated, apprehensive, vocal, chute if possible. Fortunately, most dairy cattle are or refuse to let milk down signal to the clinician the pos- rather docile and, unless startled or approached with- sibility of stray electrical voltage. Occasional spontaneous out warning, may be examined thoroughly without demonstrations of anxiety or agitation in cattle at pasture excessive restraint. As a general rule, free-stall cattle are wilder than cattle housed in conventional barns, but there are exceptions. Hands-on Examination The manners and nature of the owner (or herdsperson) are directly reected in the contentment or lack thereof Once the general examination and history are complete, observed in the herd. Some herds consist of truly quiet the hands-on part of the physical examination should and contented cows, whereas in other herds all cattle begin and proceed uninterrupted. It is important that will act apprehensive, jumpy, and fear all human con- the clinician is allowed to initiate and complete the tact. These latter herds, without exception, are handled hands-on examination in the absence of interference by roughly and loudly and frequently are mistreated. The others and during a period when other environmental veterinarian will quickly learn to adjust to the variable interference (e. A group size of herds coupled with the impersonal nature of approach to physical examination or one that is per- free-stall housing has decreased the family farm hus- formed within a distracting environment only serves to bandry that had allowed more human/cow contact. A man s usefulness in a herd ceases at tomed to people working around the udder, and their once when he loses his temper and bestows rough reproductive examinations or inseminations are fre- usage. Cattle are not reasoning quent enough such that their overall anxiety is less beings. The proaching the head or forequarters causes the cow to giving of milk is a function of Motherhood; rough become more excitable, and this alters baseline param- treatment lessens the ow. Always keep these ideas in mind in dealing The examination begins with insertion of a rectal with my cattle. The ther- (Circa 1885) mometer should be left in place for 2 minutes (except Occasionally cows that are transported or moved from for digital thermometers that provide rapid readings), familiar to unfamiliar surroundings will go wild and during which time the animal s pulse rate is determined 8 Part I Examination and Assessment by palpation of the coccygeal artery (6 to 12 inches temperature has resulted from our observation of scores from the base of the tail) and a respiratory rate recorded of hospitalized cattle with conrmed chronic peritonitis by observation of thoracic excursions. The clinician but which maintain daily body temperatures between should use this 2-minute period to further observe the 102. Therefore unless exogenous hyper- patient and its environment and to determine the habi- thermia is suspected, rectal temperatures above 102. The rear udder should be palpated, as well as the should alert the clinician to inammatory diseases. A supramammary lymph nodes, during the time tempera- normal body temperature does not rule out all inam- ture is taken. The distinct, fetid odor the normal range of body temperature at some time of septic metritis, necrotic vaginitis, or retained fetal during the day. Recurrent fever is characterized by sev- membranes; the necrotic odor of udder dermatitis; the eral days of fever alternating with 1 or more days of sweetish odor of melena; or the septic tank odor of normal body temperature. If manure stains the tail, is passed during the physiologic response to sepsis, toxemia, or pyrogens. It examination, or has accumulated in the gutter behind is the body s means of destroying organisms and insti- the cow, the veterinarian should assess the consistency gating protective defense mechanisms. Fever in cattle and volume of the manure visually as compared with should not be masked by antiinammatory or anti- herdmates on the same diet. Cattle do not have the tendency for and udder may suggest anemia in cattle such as Hol- laminitis secondary to fever that is observed in horses. Fever provides an excellent means of assess- sprung rib cage on the left or right side, suggestive of ing the clinical response of the cow or calf to appropri- an abomasal displacement. Pulse Rate Body Temperature The normal pulse rate for adult cattle is 60 to 84 beats/ The normal body temperature range for a dairy cow is min. Calves, excitable cattle, or cattle exposed to high affecting the pulse rate must be left to the clinician who environmental heat or humidity may have temperatures is performing the examination and taking environmen- of 103. True hypothermia may occur as a result of hypocal- is present when the patient is excited or has any of a cemia when ambient temperature is less than body tem- number of organic diseases. With muscu- may be of endogenous origin (fever) or exogenous (heat loskeletal pain, a large difference in pulse rate will be exhaustion, sun stroke). Usually exogenous causes of found between when the animal is recumbent (lower) hyperthermia can be explained readily based on the gen- and when it stands. It Bradycardia is a lower-than-normal heart rate (pulse should be noted that hypocalcemic cows or recumbent rate) and is present in very few conditions in cattle. We frequently nd to originate from the upper airway, whereas expiratory this in cattle that are not systemically ill but are held dyspnea usually incriminates the lower airway. Mixed off feed in preparation for anesthesia and elective sur- dyspnea occurs in many conditions such as anoxia, se- gery. Except for an occasional cow with ketosis, we vere pneumonia, and narrowing of the lower tracheal have not observed development of bradycardia in sick lumen. Audible respiratory noise, mostly on inspira- cattle that have been off feed for a prolonged time. It tion, is characteristic of an upper respiratory obstruc- may be that veterinarians seldom see normal cattle off tion. The head and neck are often abnormally extended feed for long periods because we are only called to in cattle with respiratory dysfunction, and when pneu- examine sick cattle. One exception is the broken monia is present the cattle often cough after rising. Once the initial portion of the hands-on physical ex- Pulse decits or arrhythmias encountered when ob- amination is completed at the rear of the animal the taining the pulse rate may dictate further consideration examiner moves to the left side of the cow. The fre- excited by the presence of the examiner near her fore- quency, depth, and character of respiration should be limb, the heart rate may be higher than the pulse rate assessed. Calves at rest breathe 20 to 40 times of heart sounds should be assessed during auscultation per minute.
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S. Tamkosch. Immaculata College.