By K. Luca. University of California, Santa Barbara.
In other words buy provera australia menstruation green discharge, it is very often pref- detaching the anterior segment of the lateral crura from the erable to leave a nose that is large but well suited to the overall skin beneath discount 10 mg provera visa pregnancy uti treatment, and securing it in a caudal position cheap provera 5mg free shipping women's health center elmhurst hospital. The values provided by the latter for pro- tip in the Mediterranean nose, bearing in mind the height of jection, rotation, and nasal angles should in fact be regarded the nasal dorsum and its relationship with the supratip region. The common methods of anal- Eﬀorts to enhance projection should also begin with proce- ysis provide useful guidelines for some defects but should not dures involving cartilage sutures and go on to the use of be taken in an absolute sense, and the modifications should be grafts only if these prove insufficient. The balancing of the adapted to the situation case by case to avoid impairment of the projection of the tip and the line of the dorsum is the most patient’s physiognomy. Respect for the ethnic group of origin is delicate phase of rhinoplasty on the Mediterranean nose. If therefore more important than the abstract pursuit of an excellent results are to be obtained, crucial importance unnatural aesthetic ideal. Arch Facial Plast Surg 1999; 1: 246–256, scope 1988; 98: 202–208 discussion 257–258  Friedman O, Akcam T, Cook T. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2006; 8: 195–201 deprojection techniques and introduction of medial crural overlay. Lateral crural strut graft: technique and clinical Facial Plast Surg 2005; 7: 374–380 applications in rhinoplasty. The lateral crural stairstep technique: a modification sion 953–955 of the kridel lateral crural overlay technique. Controlled nasal tip rotation via the lateral crural over- 1975; 56: 35–40 lay technique. Facial Plast Surg 2003; 19: 279–294 524–529 556 Rhinoplasty for the East Asian Nose 70 Rhinoplasty for the East Asian Nose Yong Ju Jang and Myeong Sang Yu Asians include people living in Eastern Asia, Southeast Asia, Autologous Tissue India, and the Middle East who have diﬀerent ethnic origins The advantage of autologous material for the dorsal augmenta- and diﬀerent aesthetic features. As a result of the diverse eth- tion of the nose cannot be questioned as these implants are nicities in these populations, the anatomic characteristics of well tolerated and carry the least risk of infection. Although there are substantial variations, in any autologous tissue other than septal cartilage is selected, the the typical Asian nose, the nasal skin tends to be thicker than additional operative time required to harvest the graft and the that of Caucasian noses, with abundant subcutaneous soft tis- donor-site morbidity become limiting factors. The tip of the nose is usually low, and the lower lateral car- gous tissues used for dorsal augmentation include septal carti- tilages are small and weak. The nasal bones are poorly devel- lage, conchal cartilage, costal cartilage, and fascia. The septal cartilage is to harvest and shape the septal cartilage, it can be used to mod- thin and small. Altogether, when compared with Caucasian erately elevate the nasal dorsum, to camouflage a partial con- noses, the typical Asian nose appears to be relatively small and cavity on the dorsum, and for nasal tip surgery. In an aesthetic analysis of the patients have relatively small noses, it is practically difficult to nasal profile, the nasolabial angles of Asians are typically more harvest enough amount of septal cartilage, leaving at least 1-cm acute than those of Caucasians, but the nasofrontal angles do 1 width of the L-strut, suitable for a full-length dorsal graft. Unlike septal cartilage, conchal cartilage has an intrinsic curva- ture that hampers its routine use in a dorsal augmentation in its original shape. In addition, the conchal cartilage Dorsal augmentation is the most commonly addressed issue in is frequently too small to yield a cartilage piece suitable for one- Asian rhinoplasty and also the most common reason for revi- piece dorsal augmentation. When performing augmentation rhinoplasty on tion of the septal cartilages and to overcome the limitation in Asians, it is preferable or mandatory to first perform tip surgery size, the author (Y. The thickness of the patient’s Also, when using conchal cartilage, it may be necessary to over- skin must be taken into consideration. If excessive dorsal aug- lap pieces of cartilage in opposite directions of their curvature mentation is performed on a patient whose skin is too thin, to neutralize their intrinsic curvature. Although costal cartilage there is a risk of implant visibility through the skin or an extru- is difficult to harvest and is associated with more serious sion of the implant. Conversely, too thick skin can decrease the donor-site morbidity such as pneumothorax, as well as the eﬀect of nasal augmentation. Therefore, with patients who have problem of warping, it is the most useful autologous cartilage thin skin, it is preferable to use soft implants such as Gore-Tex for substantial augmentation or for patients who have experi- (W. In patients Although strongly advocated by some surgeons for routine use with thick skin, a relatively solid material such as silicone, rein- in Asian rhinoplasty,5 during the primary rhinoplasty, it is very forced Gore-Tex, or costal cartilage can be used without signifi- difficult to persuade Asian women to use costal cartilage cant problems. One other critically important limitation of autologous tissue is that except for only a few highly experienced surgeons, most rhino- 70. Materials used in rhinoplasty can be divided largely Warping, graft visibility, and unnatural-looking noses are com- between biologic tissues (autologous and homologous tissue) mon complications of augmentation using costal cartilage. Alloplastic implants generally need to more difficult cases, and use of these implants is associated be biocompatible, nontoxic, chemically safe, and nonimmuno- with unpredictable scarring, warping, and at times visible graft genic. At present, Autologous fascia, including temporalis fascia, can be used in the most commonly used alloplastic implants that meet these rhinoplasty as radix graft or dorsal onlay grafts. Furthermore, it shown conflicting results regarding the degree of resorption is not always possible to harvest sufficient fascia of reasonable and warping. The high complica- tion rate associated with homologous cartilage may limit its Homologous Tissue or Tissue Allograft 10 utility for dorsal augmentation. For example, homologous costal used for smoothening grafts for dorsal irregularity after correc- cartilage harvested from cadaveric donors and processed in var- tion of a deviated nose, as additional graft material when an ious ways has been shown to be useful in rhinoplasty. Due to its stable chemical structure, silicone has several advantages, including its low degree of tissue reaction and ease of handling. More- over, the availability of ready-made products makes application convenient, and the relative hardness of silicone makes it suit- able for fashioning the desired nasal shape for Asians with a thick skin. Some surgeons favor an L-shaped or a variation of I-shaped silicone (covering the nasal tip) capable of coverage from the radix all the way down to the nasal tip. However, because the nasal tip is an area that is always exposed to exterior stimulation, use of L-shaped silicone carries a higher risk of extrusion regardless of the thickness of nasal subcutaneous tissue in Asians. Thus, placement of an I-shaped implant at the nasal dorsum area and tip plasty using an autologous material (septal cartilage, conchal cartilage) at the nasal tip area is the more preferred surgical method. In addition to using prefabricated silicone implants, the author has used silicone sheeting for nasal dorsal augmentation, which is more versatile and carries no increased risk of complica- tions. Revision rhinoplasty after silicone implants may be needed for implant deviation, floating, displacement, extrusion, impending extrusion, and infection. Gore-Tex implants are porous, inducing the surrounding tissue to grow inward through the pore, and have the advan- tages of increased stability and lower risk of capsule formation. The soft texture of Gore-Tex reduces patient dis- and extrusion, an unpredictable degree of resorption could be a comfort and the occurrence of unnatural visible implant problem. Reports of delayed inflammation are increas- The typical endonasal approach for Caucasian noses involves ing, thus one must be cautious when using Gore-Tex in the cephalic resection through a delivery or nondelivery approach presence of inflammation within the nasal cavity (sinusitis, ves- and placement of transdomal and interdomal sutures and col- tibulitis, and active acne). This approach can also be used for the placement tions that may create microcommunication with the nasal cav- of shield or onlay graft. It has been reported that infection gery requiring only a cephalic resection is very rare in Asian rate in primary surgery is 1. Among the multitude of cartilage strong enough to push up thick skin after the skin is tip surgery techniques, the following have an important role covered up again. Therefore, even when a leading edge higher and should be emphasized for the Asian tip. The new tip graft complex should be able to project the tip to an antero-caudal direction.
Extended septal batten or whole septum buy generic provera online women's health clinic victoria hospital winnipeg, because often in the area of the osseocartilagi- spreader grafts provide secure refixation in caudal septal nous junction generic provera 10 mg mastercard breast cancer 45 year old woman, a long-enough straight part can be found to act replacement graft techniques discount 2.5 mg provera visa pregnancy 5 weeks 5 days. Then the dorsum will become the new reconstruction, the septum is best refixated using horizontal anterior border. To create a straight septal plate, finally, redun- U-shaped or running sutures to the upper laterals as well as dant and dislocated cartilage is excised and straight pieces by the above-mentioned premaxilla groove and the bone sutured together. Only in case of instability in scoring, adjusting mattress sutures, or smoothing with a drill. If the K-area does the septum also have to be resuspended to reinforcement is required, smoothly filed pieces of the perpen- 29 the nasal bone. Spreader grafts sutured in place are ideal to stabilize the upper border of the septum and to 7. The straightened new septum is reimplanted between the subperichondrial and sub- At the end of surgery, the septum should stay in the midline periosteal layers and refixed to the upper laterals and the ante- without tension, providing sufficient support to the nasal rior nasal spine. For better needed but usually is not necessary after mattress suturing and drainage of the blood between the mucoperichondrial flaps, a splinting. However, soft packing for 12 to 48 hours reduces small posterior mucosal incision is recommended. In general, the splints are removed at day 4 to 5, in Proper preoperative analysis and classification of the type of complete septal reconstruction at day 10 to 12. As a rule of thumb, slight deviations, single spurs and deformities such as S-shaped and wavelike deviations, the mul- maxillary crests, the septal tilt, and simple C-shaped deform- tiple fractured and preoperated septum, and severe malforma- ities may be mastered endonasally using the swinging door tions such as the cleft nose, the external approach combined technique, scoring incisions, septal batten grafts, septal resec- with complete extracorporeal reconstruction has been found to tions, or caudal replacement grafts. The correction of deflections of the nasal septum with minimum of Clin Laser Med Surg 1997; 15: 123–129 traumatism. Normale und pathologische Anatomie der Nasenhohle und Arch Otolaryngol 1929; 9: 282–292 ihrer pneumatischen Anhange. An operation to repair lateral displacement of the lower border of sep- 1882 tal cartilage. An operation to repair lateral displacement of the lower border of sep- - nasal breathing. Reconstruction of anterior nasal septum: back-to- (Basel) 1958; 20: 115–124 back autogenous ear cartilage graft. Correction of caudal septal deviation: use of a caudal 37: 415–422 septal extension graft. Plast Reconstr Surg 1995; 95: 672–682 10: 152–157  Zachow S, Steinmann A, Hildebrandt T, Weber R, Heppt W. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999; 120: 1983; 72: 735–736 678–682 60 The Importance of the Nasal Septum in the Deviated Nose 8 The Im portance of the Nasal Septum in the Deviated Nose Jonathan M. Sykes, Ji-Eon Kim, David Shaye, and Armando Boccieri nasal spine of the premaxilla. The structural variations of the nasal secondary to trauma, contributes to deformity. These structures and their subtle anatomic interrelationships can all contribute to the appear- 8. A detailed history should be performed outlining any previous Specifically, the nasal septum provides a crucial underlying trauma or prior nasal surgery. Therefore, septal deformity is frequently associated airflow, use of intranasal drugs, or any systemic diseases while with a majority of patients with a severely crooked nose. To better assess facial proportions and symmetry, the face septum to straighten the deviated nose are described. A vertical line placed through the center of the upper lip (on standard frontal photography) will allow the 8. This will also facilitate the identification of underly- integral to treatment of the crooked nose. During development, ing facial asymmetries that contribute to the appearance of a the septum forms as a down-growth of the fused medial nasal crooked nose. Asymmetries with their root anatomic causes processes and the nasofrontal process. The growing septum outside of the nose itself must be identified preoperatively and fuses with the palatine processes and divides the nose into two discussed with the patient. Densely adherent perichondrium (anteriorly) The nose can be divided into horizontal thirds, each of which and periosteum (posteriorly) cover the septum. The upper third anterior and posterior ethmoid arteries and sphenopalatine houses the nasal bones, which define the width of the bony pyr- arteries run between the perichondrium and mucosal layers to amid. Previous fractures can lead to widening or distortion of provide vascular supply to the septum. The nasal septum does not usually contribute At the septum’s most anterosuperior projection, it fuses with to deviations of the upper third. Superiorly, the septum and upper used to reposition bony nasal deviations of the pyramid. A severely of the caudal and dorsal septal edges forms the anterior septal divergent nasal septum within the middle third can have both angle. When a projection diﬀerence exists between the domes aesthetic and functional consequences. These include func- of the lower lateral cartilages and the anterior septal angle, a tional nasal obstruction and weakness or concavity of the mid- supratip depression (break) may become visible. Furthermore, the relationship between the The caudal septum provides structural support for the lower upper lateral cartilages and the nasal bones should be carefully nose and lobule, and its inferior projection characterizes the examined with respect to midline. Typically, the caudal septum attaches to the anterior third can result from disarticulation of the upper lateral Fig. For deflections of the caudal septum alone or more gen- eralized deformities, a hemitransfixion incision is used. By limiting dissection to a subperichondrial plane, the endonasal approach can address the majority of crooked carti- lage that necessitates resection and repositioning. Additionally, cartilages from the nasal bones or a severely deviated underly- limited grafting can be performed via an endonasal approach. The open septoplasty approach is excellent for addressing The lower nasal third is greatly aﬀected by the alignment and support and improving function. Subtle asymmetries of the lower ization of the L-strut components of support: the caudal and lateral cartilages and position of the nasal tip are often attrib- dorsal struts. A weakness identified within the L-strut is often uted to a twisting of the underlying septum. For example, preoperative common for previous trauma to have displaced the inferior sep- tip weakness is often caused by a short or weak caudal septum, tum oﬀ of the maxillary crest, resulting in a buckling, C-shaped which can be treated with a caudal extension graft. This often results in asymmetry of the nasal base, grafts such as these and dorsal strut grafts require targeted, which is best recognized on the basal view. The open septoplasty approach provides the Intranasal examination is performed with a nasal speculum exposure necessary to allow precise grafting at sites of weak- before and after decongestant is applied. If desired, the open approach also allows concurrent endoscope should be employed for improved visualization.
D ecreased platelet survival can also be due to splenic sequestration in patients with splenomegaly for various reasons (eg 5 mg provera amex menstruation breast pain, portal hyper- tension buy cheap provera 5 mg on line women's health center lexington ky, myelofibrosis) cheap provera 5mg without a prescription women's health boutique houston memorial. T h e pat ient will present wit h the clin ical man ifest at ion s of t h r ombocyt op en ia, su ch as p et ech iae an d mu cosal bleed- ing, but wit h no syst emic toxicit y, no lymphadenopat hy or splenomegaly, normal wh it e and red blood cell count s, and normal periph eral blood smear except for thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy is generally performed in patients older than 60 years to exclude myelodysplastic syndrome, and often reveals increased megakaryocytes but other- wise normal findings. For those with lower platelet counts or bleeding sympt oms can be t reat ed wit h oral glucocorticoids, such as predn ison e 1 mg/ kg of body weight. Ant i-D is an ant i-Rh(D ) immune globulin for pat ient s who have an Rh+ blood type, but it may be ineffective in patients who have had a splenectomy. Patients being considered for splenectomy should receive immunizations for encapsulat ed organisms such as Pneumococcus prior t o surgery. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia: When a p a t ien t p r es en t s w it h t h r o m b o cyt o p en ia, any drug that the pat ient is using should be considered a possible cause. Common drugs known to cause thrombocytopenia include H blockers, quinine, and sulfon- 2 amides. In general, the diagnosis is made by clinical observation of the response to drug withdrawal. Discontinuation of the offending medication should lead to improvement in the platelet count within a t ime frame consistent wit h t he drug’s metabolism, almost always within 7 to 10 days. Any of these disease processes can produce blood exposure to pathologic levels of tissue factor, triggering uncon- trolled thrombin generation with systemic fibrin deposition in the microcirculation. T his uncontrolled activation of coagulation results in consumption of platelets and clot t ing fact ors, leading secon dar ily t o bleeding. Plasma exchange is the st andard t reat ment and has reduced the mort alit y of this condition greatly. Clinically, it may appear to be “T T P limited to the kidney,” but the pathogenetic mechanisms and treatment differ from T T P. It may be acquired, or inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder, but is oft en n ot r ecogn ized becau se of relatively mild bleeding symptoms or because of excessive bleeding att ributed to other causes, for example, menorrhagia attributed to uterine fibroids. Typical laboratory features are reduced levels of vW F, reduced vW F act ivit y as m easu r ed b y r ist o cet in cofact or assay, an d r ed u ced fact or V I I I act ivit y. On examination,hehas st igmat a of rheumat oid art hrit is and some fullness on his left upper abdo- 3 men. H is wh it e blood cell 3 count is 3100/ mm wit h n eu t r o p en ia, an d h em o glob in level is 9 g/ d L. He drinks one glass of wine each weekend and has been diagnosed with osteoarthritis for which he takes acetaminophen. This patient is lik ely su ffer in g fr o m Felt y’s syn d r o m e ch ar act er iz ed b y r h eu - matoid arthritis, neutropenia, and splenomegaly. Splenomegaly from any eti- ology may cause sequestration of platelets, leading to thrombocytopenia. Patients who undergo splenectomy are at risk for infections of encapsu- lat ed organ isms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae an d t h u s sh ou ld r eceive the pneumococcal vaccine. It usually is given at least 2 weeks prior to splenec- tomy so that the spleen can help in forming a better immune response. Treatment consists of stopping the heparin, and starting a direct Xa inhibitor such as argat roban or bivalirudin. Patients with more severe disease can be treated with intravenous im m u n o g lo b u lin ; ch ro n ic re fra ct o ry ca se s a re t re a t e d wit h rit u xim a b o r splenectomy. As part of the routine preoperative evaluation, he had a complete blood count, but that was found to be abnormal. The procedure was cancelled and he is now referred to the internal medicine clinic for additional evaluation. As i d e f r o m h i s p r o s t a t e s y m p t o m s, the p a t i e n t i s a s y m p t o m a t i c. He h a s n o t experienced any recent fevers, chills, night sweats, arthralgias, or myalgias. He is moderately physically active, plays golf regularly, and has not noted any fatigue or exertional dyspnea. His co n ju n ct iva e a re a n ic- teric, and his skin and oral mucosa show no pallor. His chest is clear to ausculta- tion, and his heart is regular without any murmurs. On abdominal examination, his liver span seems normal, and there is no palpable spleen. Other laboratories including electrolytes, creatinine, and transaminases are all within normal limits. He is asymptomatic, and his physical examinat ion is normal, without any pallor, petechiae, peripheral adenopat hy, or splenomegaly. Most appropriate next step: Flow cytometry of peripheral blood to demon- st rat e a monoclonal B-cell populat ion, and confirm the diagnosis. Be able to evaluate a patient with leukocytosis to distinguish between acute and chronic leukemias, and nonmalignant causes of leukocytosis. Co n s i d e r a t i o n s In a patient presenting with marked leukocytosis, the first consideration is to try to distinguish between malignant and nonmalignant (usually infectious) causes of the elevated white blood cell count. This man is afebrile without any symptoms of infection, so infectious causes are unlikely. Since he is essentially asymptomat ic and does not have anemia or thrombocytopenia, acute leukemia is also unlikely. In patients with a leukemoid reaction, the peripheral smear may show myelocytes, metamyelocytes, promyelocytes, and sometimes myeloblasts. Leu- kemoid reactions are not dangerous in and of themselves, but they typically repre- sent a response to a significant underlying disease st ate. Patients with significant anemia or thrombocytopenia should be evaluated for an alternative diagnosis. Sympt om s may in clu d e weakn ess, easy fat igabilit y and dyspnea due t o anemia, infect ions due t o neut ropen ia, or bleed- ing sympt oms such as gingival bleeding, epist axis, or menorrhagia. O ccasionally, patients present with an extramedullary tumor mass due to accumulation of blast cells. Lym p h o cyt o sis is m o st fr eq u en t ly fo u n d in viral infections and only rarely in bacterial infection except pertussis. O t her infect ions t hat can cause lymph ocyt osis are t oxo- plasmosis, brucellosis, and sometimes syphilis. It may present either as a leukemia or a lymphoma, depending on whether lymphocytosis or lymphadenopathy is the predominant finding.
Pat ient out comes are influenced by several fact ors: (1) the cause and location cheap 5 mg provera menstruation nausea, (2) the underlying esophageal pathology order provera 10mg women's health clinic jeddah, (3) time inter- val t o d iagn o sis an d t r eat m en t purchase generic provera pills menopause fatigue, an d ( 4 ) patient co m o r b id co n d it io n s. M o st patient s wit h esophageal perforat ions describe pain associated with the occurrence. Pat ient s wit h cervical esophageal perforat ion may describe neck and chest pain, whereas patients with thoracic or abdominal esophageal perforation generally describe ch est an d/ or abd om in al pain. Cer vical p er for at ion s can pr odu ce spr eadin g in fec- tions in the deep spaces of the neck and the anterior and posterior mediastinum. T horacic and abdominal esophageal perforat ions can produce contaminations and infect ions in t he post erior mediast inum, pleural cavit ies, and abdomen. Early recognition of the condition, immediate support of airway, breathing, and circulat ion, along with ant ibiot ics administ rat ion are crit ical for good t reat - ment outcomes. Because of the rarity of the condition, treatment recommendations and strategies have not been developed based on high-level clin ical evidence. Cervical esophageal leaks are rarely life-threatening as long as they are recog- nized and addressed in a timely fashion, and in most cases, only supportive care, ant ibiot ics + drainage is required. O nly a small percent age of t he pat ient s with perforations in the neck require drainage or repairs. Perforations that are associated with underlying esopha- geal pat h ology (su ch as esoph ageal can cer an d ach alasia) gen er ally car r y a wor se prognosis and are more likely to require stent placement, resection, or repairs and myotomies. In selective cases, patients with small thoracic esophageal perforations wit h cont ained leakage and no underlying esophageal pathology can be managed wit h N P O + ant ibiot ics and observat ion alone (See Figure 15-1). The radiologist indicat ed t hat t he locat ion is amendable t o percut aneous drainage. Esophageal instrumentation leading to iatrogenic injury is the most com mon cau se of n ont r au ma-r elat ed esoph ageal p er for at ion s. T r au mat ic esophageal injuries are most commonly t he result of penet rat ing t rauma. Esophagram with water-soluble contrast is the best diagnostic study to help confirm esophageal perforation. This study also helps us to determine if the leakage is large and wh et h er it is cont ained. Esoph agoscopy can iden- tify a perforation and provide information regarding its size and location. Unfortunat ely, t he procedure is invasive; wit h t he air int roduct ion into t he esophageal lumen during t he procedure, perforat ion can be worsened. O p er at ive d r ain age wit h d ist al eso p h ageal m yo t o m y an d a p ar t ial fu n d o p li- cat ion is the best t reat ment ch oice for the man wit h esoph ageal per for at ion that occurred during esophageal dilatation. Because achalasia is associated with poor esophageal empt ying, simply repairing the perforation without performing a myotomy would not be sufficient because with persistent distal obstruction, the repair has a higher chance of failure. A myotomy alone with repair would produce significant gastroesophageal reflux and compromise the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, the best option is to repair the per- forat ion, perform the myot omy, and creat e a part ial fundoplicat ion. Because patients with achalasia have esophageal dysmotility, a full circumferential wrap can result in postoperative dysphagia. Surgical repair is the preferred treatment for patients with thoracic esophageal perforations. Esophageal diversion and drainage is generally applied when pat ient s present late (> 24 hours) and/ or if t he clinical condi- tion is poor, or when the patient is a poor surgical candidate. For this 21-year old patient, an operative repair should be well tolerated and would provide him with the best long-term outcome. The size of the esophageal perforation has not been found to be a prog- nostic indicator for esophageal perforation. O lder age, noncontained leakage, white blood cell count, and time interval between perforation and treatment are established prognostic indicators for patients with esophageal perforations. With theincreasein elapsed timebetween perforation and repair,thepatient’s overall condition generally deteriorates and with increased contamination of the mediastinum, the tissue at the edges of the perforation may become more inflamed and edemat ous. W it h det eriorat ion in clinical condit ion, pat ient s are less likely to tolerate an aggressive surgical procedure. W it h delays and increased inflammat ory changes in t he esophagus and t he surrounding areas, there is increased likelihood of repair failure. Nonoperative treatment is gen- erally applied when t he perforat ion occurs in the cervical esophagus or if t he leakage is well cont ained and not causing sepsis. D iagnost ic endoscopy is gen er ally n ot p er for m ed t o d iagn ose esoph ageal p er for at ion becau se it can make the condition worse. Endoscopy is performed in selective patients for treatment, and endoscopic treatments available include endoscopic closure of perforation and stent placement to seclude the site of perforation. Chest rad iograp h d emon strating p neumome d iastinum and / or left p leural e ffu- sion are common. Cu r r en t t r eat m en t an d out com e of esoph ageal p er for at ion s in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of 75 studies. Evolving management strategies in esophageal perforation: surgeon using nonoperative techniques to improve outcomes. The patient states that over the past 4 to 5 weeks, he has noticed a worsening ability to tolerate solid foods. During this time, he has had pain and discomfort with swallowing, along with a sensation of “the food being stuck in his chest. Hi s p a s t m e d i c a l h i s t o r y i s significant for hypertension and self-diagnosed and self-treated “indigestion. His vital signs are normal, there is no e vid e nce of ad enop athy, and the remainder of the physical examination is unremarkable. His white blood cell count is normal, hemoglob in is 12 g/ dL, and the hematocrit is 40%. Risk factors associated with the process: Known risk factors associated with squamous cell carcinoma include caustic burns, alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, and nit rite- and nit rat e-cont aining food. O t her suspect ed risk fact ors of t his dis- ease include West ern diet s and acid-suppression medicat ions. Learn the approach to local and systemic staging of esophageal and gast r oesoph ageal (G E) ju n ct ion car cin om as. Learn to apply staging information and clinical assessment to help determine the optimal treatment course for patients with esophageal carcinomas. Co n s i d e r a t i o n s This patient describes dysphagia to solid foods that has developed over a fairly short period of t ime (several weeks). If the patient were to describe a more protracted course of symptoms progression (months to years), other differential diagnoses such as benign strictures, congenital malformations, and achalasia could be more likely. H owever, given the time course of his symptoms evolution, the most likely diagnosis is an obstructive malignant neoplasm.
Infliximab is also approved for psoriasis (see Chapter 85) buy discount provera 2.5mg on line womens health 2014, psoriatic arthritis best provera 5 mg pregnancy x-rays, ankylosing spondylitis order 10 mg provera overnight delivery pregnancy 2, and two intestinal disorders: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis (see Chapter 64). Accordingly, the drug should not be given to patients with chronic infections and should be temporarily withdrawn if an acute infection develops. Symptoms can be reduced by pretreatment with an antihistamine, acetaminophen, or a glucocorticoid. In these patients, adalimumab can reduce symptoms and slow progression of joint damage. The most common side effects are injection-site reactions (rash, erythema, itching, pain, swelling), which develop in about 20% of patients. In clinical trials, the most common adverse effects were injection-site reactions, upper respiratory tract infections, and nasopharyngitis. However, except for injection-site reactions, the incidence of these adverse effects was only slightly higher than in patients receiving placebo. Because of this “pegylation,” the drug is eliminated slowly, with a half-life of 17 days. In clinical trials, the most common events were upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and arthralgia. Rituximab, a B-Lymphocyte–Depleting Agent Actions and Uses Rituximab [Rituxan] reduces the number of B lymphocytes, cells that play an important role in the autoimmune attack on joints. In addition, rituximab is indicated for two inflammatory disorders of blood vessels—Wegener granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis—and for two types of cancer: B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Adverse Effects Infusion Reactions Rituximab can cause severe infusion-related hypersensitivity reactions, beginning within 30 to 120 minutes. The immediate reaction and its sequelae include hypotension, bronchospasm, angioedema, hypoxia, pulmonary infiltrates, myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock. To reduce the risk for these events, patients should be premedicated with an antihistamine and acetaminophen and monitored during the infusion. If a severe reaction occurs, management includes giving glucocorticoids, epinephrine, bronchodilators, and oxygen. Patients who experience these reactions should seek immediate medical attention and should not receive rituximab again. Patients and prescribers should be alert for any new neurologic signs and symptoms. Other Adverse Effects Like other monoclonal antibodies, rituximab can cause a flu-like syndrome, especially during the initial infusion. Rituximab causes transient neutropenia, but this does not appear to increase the risk for infection. Preparations, Dosage, and Administration Rituximab [Rituxan] is supplied in solution (10 mg/mL) in 10- and 50-mL single-use vials. To reduce the risk for infusion reactions, patients should be premedicated with an antihistamine and acetaminophen. For children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the drug may be used alone or in combination with methotrexate. The most common adverse effects are headache, upper respiratory infection, nasopharyngitis, and nausea. Because abatacept suppresses immune function, the drug can increase the risk for serious infections. Infections seen most often are pneumonia, cellulitis, bronchitis, diverticulitis, pyelonephritis, and urinary tract infections. Patients should be told about infection risk and advised to report suspected infection immediately. Abatacept may blunt the effect of all vaccines and may increase the risk for infection from live virus vaccines. Live virus vaccines should not be used in children or adults during abatacept use and for 3 months after stopping. The combination increases the risk for serious infection and offers no benefit over abatacept alone. In five clinical trials involving more than 4000 patients, tocilizumab was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing joint tenderness and swelling. Other adverse effects include headache, nasopharyngitis, hypertension, and increased cholesterol levels. Serious Infections Owing to its immunosuppressant actions, tocilizumab increases the risk for life- threatening infections. During tocilizumab therapy, patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of infection. In the event of certain laboratory changes—increased transaminase levels, reduced neutrophil counts, or reduced platelet counts—tocilizumab should be given in reduced dosage or discontinued, depending on the magnitude of the change. B l a c k B o x Wa r n i n g : To c i l i z u m a b [ A c t e m r a ] Tocilizumab may cause an increased risk for developing serious and potentially fatal infections. Patients at high risk for perforation —especially those with diverticulitis—should be closely monitored. Patients should be instructed to contact their prescriber in the event of severe, persistent abdominal pain. Liver Injury Tocilizumab can cause liver injury, as indicated by elevation of circulating liver transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). Neutropenia and Thrombocytopenia Tocilizumab can reduce counts of neutrophils and platelets. In clinical trials, reduction of platelets was not associated with increased bleeding. Neutrophil and platelet counts should be determined at baseline and every 4 to 8 weeks during treatment. Drug Interactions In general, tocilizumab should not be combined with other strong immunosuppressants, owing to an increased risk for serious infections. It is also approved for treatment of neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. When administrating this drug, the solution should not be shaken, and injection sites should be rotated. Accordingly, the drug should not be given to patients with active infection and should be stopped if a serious infection develops. Prescribing and Monitoring Considerations for Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists P a t i e n t E d u c a t i o n Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors Inform patients about the risk for infection and other reactions. Instruct them to seek medical attention for signs or symptoms of infection, skin rashes, bruising, bleeding, or pallor. Advise patients to report signs of heart failure such as shortness of breath and orthopnea, fatigue, and edema. Teach patients about symptoms of liver injury—fatigue, yellow skin, yellow eyes, anorexia, right-sided abdominal pain, dark brown urine—and advise them to seek medical attention if these develop. Explain to patients receiving adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, and golimumab that it is common to have redness, swelling, itching, and discomfort at the injection site. Inform them that symptoms usually subside in a few days, but they should contact the prescriber if the reaction persists. Administration Considerations Adalimumab, Certolizumab, Etanercept, Golimumab Teach patients and caregivers how to administer subQ injections, using either a syringe (adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab) or an autoinjector (adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab).
The newest agents discount 2.5mg provera women's health clinic eau claire wi, zolpidem best order for provera womens health magazine women diet test, The sedative-hypnotic drugs include benzodiazepines buy generic provera on-line women's health clinic grenada ms, bar- zaleplon, eszopiclone, and ramelteon, have the advantages of biturates, some antihistamines, and a few nonbenzodiaz- not signifcantly affecting sleep architecture and not causing epine agents, such as zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone, and as much tolerance and dependence as do the older drugs. The properties of these drugs are summarized For these reasons, zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone, and in Table 19-1, and their adverse effects and drug interactions ramelteon have become the drugs of choice to treat most are listed in Table 19-2. Because the benzodiazepines have fewer adverse reactions and drug interactions and are safer in cases of overdose, they Other Sleep Disorders have largely replaced the barbiturates and other older drugs. Other sleep disorders include hypersomnia (diffculty in Nevertheless, barbiturates are still used when benzodiaze- awakening), narcolepsy (sleep attacks), enuresis (bedwet- pines are ineffective or contraindicated. The sedating anti- ting during sleep), somnambulism (sleepwalking), sleep histamines are occasionally used to treat mild insomnia and apnea (episodes of hypoventilation during sleep), and night- anxiety and have less potential for abuse than do benzodi- mares and night terrors. As the plasma concentration of a benzodiazepine drugs is largely determined by their pharmacokinetic prop- declines, the drug is redistributed from the brain to the erties and route of administration. Most benzodiazepines are converted to active metabo- lites in phase I oxidative reactions catalyzed by cytochrome Drug Properties P450 enzymes. The pharmacokinetic properties of diazepam, and furazepam are long acting and contribute to various benzodiazepines are compared in Table 19-1. The active benzodiazepines are absorbed from the gut and distributed metabolites of alprazolam, estazolam, midazolam, and tri- to the brain at rates that are proportional to their lipid azolam are shorter acting. Each of these active metabolites Chapter 19 y Sedative-Hypnotic and Anxiolytic Drugs 191 Chlordiazepoxide Diazepam Chlorazepate (active) (active) (inactive) Desmethylchlordiazepoxide (active) Figure 19-1. Chlordiazepoxide and diaze- Demoxepam Desmethyldiazepam pam are converted to long-acting active metabo- (active) (active) lites. Alprazolam, midazolam, and triazolam are Alprazolam, triazolam, converted to a short-acting active metabolite. Clo- Flurazepam estazolam, midazolam razepate is a prodrug and inactive until metabo- (active) Oxazepam lized. All benzodiazepines, including those with no (active) (all active) active metabolites, are eventually converted to gluc- uronide compounds that are pharmacologically Hydroxy/ inactive and are excreted in the urine. These three drugs may be safer for Outside use by elderly patients, because the capacity to conjugate drugs does not decline with age as much as the capacity for Neuronal α γ oxidative biotransformation does. Hence, these three drugs cell membrane are less likely to accumulate to toxic levels in elderly patients. In fact, binding site binding site some patients who are taking a drug such as diazepam may notice an increased sedative effect after eating a high-fat Cl– meal. The fatty meal causes the gallbladder to empty and thereby delivers bile containing diazepam to the intestines for reabsorption into the circulation. Ethanol (ethyl and barbiturates, as well as alcohols, steroids, and inhala- alcohol) binds to a distinct site on the ionophore and enhances chloride infux. The ionophore also contains binding sites for steroids and inhala- tional anesthetics. This action the newer nonbenzodiazepine agents (see later) are selective increases the inhibitory effect of adenosine on neurons that for receptors containing α1 subunits. She was told to take one in the morning with her breakfast and was advised to increase her activities to “take Anesthesia her mind off her worries. She continued taking one diazepam pill in the morning and one pill at night for the next few days. Her friends noted that she was not Sedation coming out of her room at the assisted living center as much 0. However, benzodiazepines are retrograde amnesia, in which a person cannot remember metabolized into many active metabolites, some that have what happened before a certain point in time. Phase 1 diazepines produce anterograde amnesia because they inter- or oxidative drug biotransformation (metabolism) in the fere with the formation of new memory; they do not affect elderly is reduced, and this patient population is especially the ability to recall past events. The amnesic property of sensitive to the buildup of active metabolites of many ben- benzodiazepines is often useful when patients are undergo- zodiazepines, including diazepam. Three agents are better ing stressful procedures, such as endoscopy or outpatient suited in elderly patients; oxazepam, temazepam, and loraz- surgery. When these drugs are used on a long-term basis, epam do not undergo phase 1 metabolism but are directly such as in treating anxiety, the amnesic properties can have conjugated to inactive metabolites. Tri- use of zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine drug used for insom- azolam, a widely used hypnotic, has been associated with nia, has a short elimination half-life and leads to little hang- problems caused by its amnesic effect. Although benzodiazepines cause muscle relaxation only at doses that produce considerable sedation, they are occasion- ally used to treat muscle spasm and spasticity. The muscle- the reticular formation, which is a brain structure mediating relaxing effects of benzodiazepines are probably caused by arousal. They impair cognitive processing and can affect con- higher doses produce hypnosis (sleep) and anesthesia (Fig. Benzodiazepines can relieve anxiety at doses that with driving and other psychomotor skills. Specifc warnings of respiratory depression were issued In addition to producing sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic by the U. The greater effect produced by intravenous intravenously and has a rapid onset and a short duration of administration probably results from the more rapid uptake action. Its potential adverse effects include seizures, arrhyth- of the drug by brain tissue, which results in a greater poten- mias, blurred vision, emotional lability, and dizziness. The reduce behavioral inhibitions in a manner similar to the β-carboline drugs act to decrease chloride conductance by disinhibitory effect of alcohol. Some experimental inverse ago- reational abuse by polydrug abusers and to their inappropriate nists enhance cognitive function and are being studied for long-term use by patients. The newest agent, ramelteon, is the only treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia, muscle spasm, unscheduled prescription sedative-hypnotic agent and is seizure disorders, and spasticity. They are also used for the thought to have fewer reinforcing effects as it is an agonist treatment of alcohol withdrawal. If long-term use is medically justi- ical dependence, the severity of which is proportional to the fed, the physician should carefully monitor drug use to dosage and duration of administration. If their medication is abruptly discon- Specifc Agents tinued, they will experience a withdrawal syndrome charac- Alprazolam is converted to a short-acting α-hydroxyl terized by rebound anxiety, insomnia, headache, irritability, metabolite before undergoing glucuronide formation. The withdrawal syndrome is usually zolam has a medium duration of action and is used primarily mild and not life-threatening. To prevent the in the treatment of panic disorder, the larger doses usually occurrence of seizures, the dosage of benzodiazepines should required for controlling panic attacks can cause considerable be gradually tapered over a period of several weeks. Therefore for the various drugs in the benzodiazepine class exhibit cross- many patients the panic disorder can be treated instead with tolerance, any of them can be substituted for another one to antidepressants and behavioral therapy. Unlike barbiturates, however, the Chlordiazepoxide and diazepam are converted to long- benzodiazepines do not induce their own metabolism or acting metabolites, including desmethyldiazepam (also cause pharmacokinetic tolerance. Desmethyldiazepam is converted to Although the overall safety of the benzodiazepines is oxazepam, which is excreted as a polar glucuronate conju- high, their use has been associated with hypotension, gate (see Fig. Chlordiazepoxide and diazepam are arrhythmia (tachycardia or bradycardia), and a number of effective in the treatment of anxiety. Rarely, a massive overdose of a alcohol detoxifcation, these drugs can be used to prevent benzodiazepine has been fatal, but it is less likely than in the seizures and other acute withdrawal reactions.