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Furthermore buy lady era american express ritmo pregnancy, it should encourage the food industry to undertake voluntary measures to improve food safety discount 100mg lady era fast delivery menopause 48 years old. Consumers in turn should be well aware of the quality of the food they buy buy lady era 100 mg low cost women's health clinic tucson, prepare and consume and should adopt appropriate practices of food handling at home. At the industry level, all segments, including agriculture, should establish some system for safety assurance of their products and employ appropriate procedures and technologies (19). But, it is critical that preventive measures for ensuring food safety should be given great attention to prevent and or reduce food borne diseases. Production of raw materials: To ensure safe food production, it is important to look at the agricultural level, where foods are initially produced, and improve the hygienic quality of raw foods. By improving the conditions under which crops, fruits, vegetables and food animals are raised, the hygienic quality of raw food products can be significantly improved. Furthermore, use of both pesticides and fertilizers should be reduced, and residue levels of toxic chemicals used to improve crop production should be systematically monitored. Prohibition of use of untreated sewage water for irrigation of vegetable fields is also an area of attention. Food safety at this stage can also be improved through measures 97 aimed at reduction of industrial and vehicle emissions and disposal of hazardous waste materials that can enter the food chain. Food Processing: Greater demands are being made on the food-processing industry as a result of increasing urbanization. As consumers continue to move further a way from the sources of production, they will require an effective and safe food distribution system. This separation of the customer from the production sector means a loss of the traditional methods used by the consumer to ensure, the safety of food. Substantial losses of food by contamination and spoilage can be prevented through the use of carefully controlled technology and well designed food-processing infrastructure (19). Inspection programs have serious limitations, however, as they sometimes over look critical factors that are not part of the inspection protocol. Inspection services are usually inadequate or non-existent in many developing countries in which Ethiopia is inclusive. Hazard:Means the unacceptable contamination, growth or survival of microorganisms of concern to safety or persistence in foods of products of microbial metabolism (E. Toxins, enzymes, histamine) or the presence of chemicals of a harmful level of concentration or of a potential risk to health (4). Critical control Point: Is a location, practice, procedure, or process at or by which control can be exercised overall or more factors that, if controlled, could minimize or prevent the hazard (4). Food Preservation and Storage The aim of food preservation is to eradicate or prevent the growth of pathogens during manufacturing, processing and preparation of food so that it will remain, safe to eat for longer periods of time. Bacterial growth is enabled by a number of conditions, the most important being the presence of a good substrate (in this case a food item); an infection with viable organisms; a temperature that allows growth of bacteria; proper pH; and sufficient water for growth. Food Preparation in the Home: The household is perhaps the most relevant place for developing strategies to combat food borne illness, as it is the location where the consumers, can exert the most control over what they eat. Clearly, one of the most significant components of keeping food pathogen–free in the household is maintaining a clean and hygienic environment in the kitchen or other food preparation areas. Proper sanitation facilities, cleanliness of household members who prepare the food, and control of pests are all essential for the presentation of acceptable food. Many bacterial pathogens are able to multiply in food because of the temperature at which the food is stored. Food preparation in the food service industry: The consequences of improper food preparation in food services such as canteens and restaurants can be much greater than that in the household, simply because a large number of individuals may be simultaneously exposed to unsafe food items. It is essential to have a quality control program (inspection) that will ensure the maintenance of food product standards during all stages of handling, processing and preparation; it must also be applied to all areas and equipment that come into contact with food and beverages. Street foods are particularly prone to lapses in safe food preparation, hence requiring stringent control measures (19). The different methods for applying the above principles are discussed below: Methods to keep food safe The art of keeping food safe and preservation requires knowledge of bacteria and the effect of the environment on microorganisms. Methods of keeping food safe and preservation include modern innovations such as vacuuming and filtration techniques, pressure canning and radiation processes. The primary objective of keeping food safe is to prevent food from acquiring hazardous properties during preparation, shipment, or storage. The principal methods and the techniques used to keep food safe include temperature control (including pasteurization, cooking, canning, refrigeration, freezing and drying), fermentation and pickling, chemical treatment and irradiation (2, 3, 4, 6, 7). The greatest advance in food hygiene was inadvertently made when man discovered the advantages of boiling, roasting, cooking and other heat treatments of food. Heat renders the destruction of microorganisms / pathogens and in some forms also destroys the toxin produced, such as in the case of the toxin of clostridium botulinum. The use of low temperature Unlike high temperature, low temperature (cold) is not an effective means of destroying microorganisms and toxins in foods except retarding their multiplication and metabolic activities there by reducing toxin production. This is a suitable temperature to preserve perishable food items that may get spoiled at freezing temperature. Pickling on the other hand refers to the immersion of certain foods in concentrated natural acid solution such as vinegar. Chemicals that increase osmotic pressure with reduced water activity below the level that permits growth of most bacteria can be used as bacteriostatic. Collection and handling specimen Proper collection of specimen is essential since the final laboratory results are dependent on the initial proper quality of the sample. The cause of food borne disease may be identified in the laboratory by examining specimens such as stool, blood, vomit, rectal swab, liver and duodenal aspirate; macroscopically, microscopically, culture and immunolgicly (16). If food poisoning is suspected because of a cluster of cases are 106 related to the eating of common foodstuff a sample of the suspected food should be collected (17). Safety Some organisms are more hazardous to handle and are more likely to infect laboratory workers than others, e. Infection may be acquired through the skin, eye, mouth and respiratory tract so laboratory staff must practice the following safety precautions. It should be uncontaminated with urine and collected in to a suitable size, clean, dry and leak–proof container. This container need not to be sterile but must be free of all traces of antiseptics and disinfectants. Several specimens collected on alternative days may be required for detecting parasites that are excreted intermittently e. Dysenteric and watery specimens must reach the laboratory as soon as possible after being passed (with in 15 minutes), otherwise motile parasites; such as E. Fecal specimens like other specimens received in the laboratory, must be handled with care to avoid acquiring infection, from infectious parasites, bacteria, or virus. Whenever it is difficult to get feces, rectal swab should be obtained but rectal swab is unsatisfactory unless it is heavily charged and visibly stained with feces, which collected from the rectum, not anus. Collection of Blood Specimens The following precautions need to be followed during collection of blood sample. Amebiasis Macroscopic Examination: Amoebic dysentery contains blood and mucus Microscopic stool examination: The laboratory diagnosis of amoebic dysentery is by finding E.
Another kind of stratified epithelium is transitional epithelium cheap lady era american express women's health center dover, so-called because of the gradual changes in the shapes of the apical cells as the bladder fills with urine order lady era cheap pregnancy 24. When the bladder is empty buy discount lady era 100 mg online women's health center perth, this epithelium is convoluted and has cuboidal apical cells with convex, umbrella shaped, apical surfaces. As the bladder fills with urine, this epithelium loses its convolutions and the apical cells transition from cuboidal to squamous. It appears thicker and more multi-layered when the bladder is empty, and more stretched out and less stratified when the bladder is full and distended. Glandular Epithelium A gland is a structure made up of one or more cells modified to synthesize and secrete chemical substances. A gland can be classified as an endocrine gland, a ductless gland that releases secretions directly into surrounding tissues and fluids (endo- = “inside”), or an exocrine gland whose secretions leave through a duct that opens directly, or indirectly, to the external environment (exo- = “outside”). Hormones are released into the interstitial fluid, diffused into the bloodstream, and delivered to targets, in other words, cells that have receptors to bind the hormones. The endocrine system is part of a major regulatory system coordinating the regulation and integration of body responses. A few examples of endocrine glands include the anterior pituitary, thymus, adrenal cortex, and gonads. Exocrine Glands Exocrine glands release their contents through a duct that leads to the epithelial surface. Secretions into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, technically outside of the body, are of the exocrine category. The unicellular glands are scattered single cells, such as goblet cells, found in the mucous membranes of the small and large intestine. The multicellular exocrine glands known as serous glands develop from simple epithelium to form a secretory surface that secretes directly into an inner cavity. These glands line the internal cavities of the abdomen and chest and release their secretions directly into the cavities. The duct is single in a simple gland but in compound glands is divided into one or more branches (Figure 4. In tubular glands, the ducts can be straight or coiled, whereas tubes that form pockets are alveolar (acinar), such as the exocrine portion of the pancreas. Methods and Types of Secretion Exocrine glands can be classified by their mode of secretion and the nature of the substances released, as well as by the structure of the glands and shape of ducts (Figure 4. The secretions are enclosed in vesicles that move to the apical surface of the cell where the contents are released by exocytosis. For example, watery mucous containing the glycoprotein mucin, a lubricant that offers some pathogen protection is a merocrine secretion. Apocrine sweat glands in the axillary and genital areas release fatty secretions that local bacteria break down; this causes body odor. Both merocrine and apocrine glands continue to produce and secrete their contents with little damage caused to the cell because the nucleus and golgi regions remain intact after secretion. In contrast, the process of holocrine secretion involves the rupture and destruction of the entire gland cell. New gland cells differentiate from cells in the surrounding tissue to replace those lost by secretion. The serous gland produces watery, blood-plasma-like secretions rich in enzymes such as alpha amylase, whereas the mucous gland releases watery to viscous products rich in the glycoprotein mucin. Unlike epithelial tissue, which is composed of cells closely packed with little or no extracellular space in between, connective tissue cells are dispersed in a matrix. The matrix usually includes a large amount of extracellular material produced by the connective tissue cells that are embedded within it. Connective tissues come in a vast variety of forms, yet they typically have in common three characteristic components: cells, large amounts of amorphous ground substance, and protein fibers. The amount and structure of each component correlates with the function of the tissue, from the rigid ground substance in bones supporting the body to the inclusion of specialized cells; for example, a phagocytic cell that engulfs pathogens and also rids tissue of cellular debris. Functions of Connective Tissues Connective tissues perform many functions in the body, but most importantly, they support and connect other tissues; from the connective tissue sheath that surrounds muscle cells, to the tendons that attach muscles to bones, and to the skeleton that supports the positions of the body. Protection is another major function of connective tissue, in the form of fibrous capsules and bones that protect delicate organs and, of course, the skeletal system. Transport of fluid, nutrients, waste, and chemical messengers is ensured by specialized fluid connective tissues, such as blood and lymph. Adipose cells store surplus energy in the form of fat and contribute to the thermal insulation of the body. The first connective tissue to develop in the embryo is mesenchyme, the stem cell line from which all connective tissues are later derived. Clusters of mesenchymal cells are scattered throughout adult tissue and supply the cells needed for replacement and repair after a connective tissue injury. A second type of embryonic connective tissue forms in the umbilical cord, called mucous connective tissue or Wharton’s jelly. This tissue is no longer present after birth, leaving only scattered mesenchymal cells throughout the body. Classification of Connective Tissues The three broad categories of connective tissue are classified according to the characteristics of their ground substance and the types of fibers found within the matrix (Table 4. Dense connective tissue is reinforced by bundles of fibers that provide tensile strength, elasticity, and protection. Supportive connective tissue—bone and cartilage—provide structure and strength to the body and protect soft tissues. In fluid connective tissue, in other words, lymph and blood, various specialized cells circulate in a watery fluid containing salts, nutrients, and dissolved proteins. Connective Tissue Examples Connective tissue proper Supportive connective tissue Fluid connective tissue Loose connective tissue Cartilage Areolar Hyaline Adipose Fibrocartilage Blood Reticular Elastic Dense connective tissue Bones Regular elastic Compact bone Lymph Irregular elastic Cancellous bone Table 4. Fibrocytes, adipocytes, and mesenchymal cells are fixed cells, which means they remain within the connective tissue. Macrophages, mast cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and phagocytic cells are found in connective tissue proper but are actually part of the immune system protecting the body. Polysaccharides and proteins secreted by fibroblasts combine with extra-cellular fluids to produce a viscous ground substance that, with embedded fibrous proteins, forms the extra-cellular matrix. As you might expect, a fibrocyte, a less active form of fibroblast, is the second most common cell type in connective tissue proper. In contrast, white fat adipocytes store lipids as a single large drop and are metabolically less active. The number and type of adipocytes depends on the tissue and location, and vary among individuals in the population. These cells can differentiate into any type of connective tissue cells needed for repair and healing of damaged tissue. The macrophage cell is a large cell derived from a monocyte, a type of blood cell, which enters the connective tissue matrix from the blood vessels. The macrophage cells are an essential component of the immune system, which is the body’s defense against potential pathogens and degraded host cells. Roaming, or free, macrophages move rapidly by amoeboid movement, engulfing infectious agents and cellular debris. When irritated or damaged, mast cells release histamine, an inflammatory mediator, which causes vasodilation and increased blood flow at a site of injury or infection, along with itching, swelling, and redness you recognize as an allergic response.
Internal Maxillary Artery The arterial supply to the jaw bones and the teeth comes from the maxillary artery purchase lady era pills in toronto breast cancer 7 mm, which is a branch of the external carotid artery discount lady era 100mg with mastercard breast cancer men. The branches of the maxillary 12 artery which feed the teeth directly are the inferior alveolar artery and the superior alveolar arteries buy 100mg lady era amex womens health half marathon training. Inferior Alveolar Artery The inferior alveolar artery branches from the maxillary artery medial to the ramus of the mandible. It gives off the mylohyoid branch, it supplies: ¾ the premolar and molar teeth ¾ the chin ¾ the anterior teeth ¾ the mandible and teeth. Supperior Alveolar Arteries The posterior superior alveolar artery branches from the maxillary artery superior to the maxillary tuberosity to enter the alveolar canals along with the posterior superior alveolar nerves and supplies: ¾ the maxillary teeth, ¾ Alveolar bone and membrane of the sinus. A middle superior alveolar branch is usually given off by the infraorbital continuation of the maxillary artery. It supplies ¾ the maxillary anterior teeth and their supporting tissues Branches to the teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone are derived from the superior alveolar 14 Figure 3: Branches of maxillary artery 15 Nerve Supply The sensory nerve supply to the jaws and teeth is derived from the maxillary and mandibular branches of the fifth cranial, or trigeminal, nerve, whose ganglion, the trigeminal, is located at the apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Maxillary Nerve The maxillary nerve crosses forward through the wall of the cavernous sinus and leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum. The branches of clinical significance include: ¾ a greater palatine branch that enters the hard palate through the greater palatine foramen and 16 is distributed to the hard palate and palatal gingivae as far forward as the canine tooth; ¾ a lesser palatine branch from the ganglion that enters the soft palate through the lesser palatine foramina; and ¾ a nasopaaltine branch of the posterior or superior lateral nasal branch of the ganglion that runs downward and forward on the nasal septum. Entering the palate through the incisive canal, it is distributed to the incisive papilla and to the palate anterior to the anterior palatine nerve. Posterior superior alveolaris nerve Mandibular Nerve The mandibular nerve leaves the skull though the foramen ovale and almost immediately breaks up into its several branches. The chief branches; ¾ the inferior alveolar nerve, it gives off branches to the molar and premolar teeth and their supporting bone and soft tissues. Lingual nerve Muscles The masticatory muscles concerned with mandibular movements include • the lateral pterygoid, • digastric, • masseter, • medial pterygoid, • temporalis muscles. Masseter Muscle The masseter muscle has a function of : • clenching • sometimes active in facial expression • active during forceful jaw closing • may assist in protrusion of the mandible 23 Medial Pterygoid Muscle The medial pterygoid muscle arises from the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate and from the palatine bone. The principal functions of the medial pterygoid muscle are: • Elevation and lateral positioning of the mandible. Historically the term eruption has been used to denote emergence of the tooth through the gingiva although it denotes more completely continuous tooth movement from the dental bud to occlusal contact. Calcification or mineralization (most often visualized radio graphically) of the organic matrix of a tooth, root formation, and tooth eruption are important indicators of dental age. Dental age can reflect an assessment of physiologic age comparable to age based on skeletal development, weight, or height. Deciduous/The Primary teeth The formation of teeth, development of dentition, and growth of the craniofacial complex are closely related in the prenatal as well as the postnatal development period. The “Universal” system notation The primary teeth in the maxillary arch , beginning with the right second molar, are designated by letters A through J. Palmer Zigmonds/Quadrant notation system E D C B A A B C D E E D C B A A B C D E This type nomenclature is commoinly used in japan. The palmer notation is used when there is a need to indicate the individual tooth and its place in the jaws, 29 they use a grid line. Palmer- Zsigmondy/ Quadrant notation System 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 In the quadrant notation system, beginning with the central incisors, the teeth are numbered 1 through 8. The palmer notation is used when there is a need to indicate the individual tooth and its place in the jaws. The ‘Universal’ system notation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 16 17 The Universal system is acceptable to computer system. Tooth Surface towards the cheek ------------ Buccal Tooth Surface towards the lip ---------------- Labial Tooth Surface towards the palate------------ palatal Tooth Surface towards the Midline ---------- mesial Tooth Surface towards the tongue------------ lingual Masticating surface of the tooth is ----------- occlusal Surface of the tooth away from the midline is ---- Distal. Swelling: beginning • oedema, (soft, impressible) • abscess (fluctuation) • heamatoma • tumor- duration, rapidity of growth • salivary gland- intermittent swelling during 36 3. Inspection: swelling, wounds, scars, wrinkles, color (cyanosis pigmentation, localizations, borderlines. Examination of the neck • Lymphnodes: scar, lesions, swelling, tenderness, pulsation deviation of the midline. They are classified as dental caries and none caries diseases None caries diseases include: attrition, erosion, abrasion and fluorosis Dental caries Definition: Dental caries is a pathological condition which appears after eruption of tooth and destroys enamel and dentine and forms cavity. Etiology: Bacteria + G Staphiloccocus, Streptococcus 41 Bacteriodes Spirochets Fusibacteria. Example of anatomical classification: pits and fissure cavity (occlusal cavity), smooth surface cavity. It can occur on with the facial or lingual surfaces, the predominant occurrence of the lesion is the buccal and labials surface of the tooth. Dental instruments are dental chair, hand piece, dental burs, operative, shaping, cutting etc instruments. Treatment of dental caries The treatment depends on the class or depth of the cavity ¾ Restoration is done if the resources are accessible and the there is a professional skilled in the clinic. Recently there is a treatment developed for dental caries especially for developing countries like Ethiopia. This just to clean and curette the diseased part of the enamel and dentin with hand instruments and seal the cavity with simple restorative material in order to avoid further advancement of the caries. Regressive alteration of the teeth (Non caries diseases) Regressive alteration the teeth include Abrasion, attrition and Erosion. Site:- Exposed root surface Cause:- • Use of abrasive dentifrices • Habit of opening pins • Occupation 47 2. Erosion:- is defined as a loss of tooth substance by a chemical process that does not involve known bacterial action. Etiology:- Uinknown Some scientists think that, decalcification due to local acidosis, obvious decalcification, beverages, lemon juice, gastric acid decalcificatio industries which produces beverages, chemicals may be factors for the erosion. Clinical pictures of vital pulpitis • Self initiated pain • Pain which radiates to the ear and to that side of the face. Clinical pictures of non vital pulpitis • No response to stimuli • Fistula at the gum around the root of the affected tooth and pussy discharge. Treatment: • Root canal therapy • Tooth extraction if no alternative treatment Table 4:Differential diagnosis of deep dental caries and pulpitis Pain Temp. Anatomical consideration The normal gum is pink, firm stippled with well formed papillae and gingival crevices. The oral environment together with the hosts’ defence mechanism provides a degree of protection to the dentoginval area. The defence mechnisims include saliva, crevicular (gingival) fluid, polymorph nuclear leukocyte and perhaps certain micro-organisms. Saliva: Saliva production and secretion play a vital role, due to the flushing action, which helps to remove bacteria in maintaining oral health. Thus, only those bacteria that have the capacity to adhere to the teeth surface will play a role in plaque development. Production and flow of crevicular fluid increases in relation to the level of inflammation in the gingival tissues.
Moreover discount generic lady era canada menopause 45, studies have shown that children who receive zinc supplements have lower death rates order lady era online women's health clinic san diego. Approximately one third of the world’s population live in areas at high risk of zinc deﬁciency buy cheap lady era on-line women's health clinic uiuc. The most vulnerable population groups are infants, young children, and pregnant and lactating women because of their additional requirements for this essential nutrient. Therefore, interventions to enhance the zinc intake of children in low-income countries are a useful strategy to reducing child mortality rates. Therefore, improving the zinc intake of women before and during pregnancy may help to reduce maternal mortality and beneﬁt infant growth and survival. For young children, complementary feeding practices should be implemented with zinc-rich foods, such as animal source foods, and zinc-fortiﬁed complementary foods. Summary of Study Session 7 In Study Session 7 you have learned that: 1 If the vitamin A status in the body is very low, the immune system becomes weak and illness is more common and more severe, increasing under-ﬁve death rates. In adults, anaemia reduces work capacity and mental performance as well as tolerance to infections. Iron deﬁciency anaemia can also cause increased maternal mortality due to bleeding problems. In addition, zinc reduces the frequency and severity of diarrhoea, pneumonia, and possibly malaria. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module. In this session you will be introduced to the issue of the overall shortage of food at the household level (household food insecurity). You will learn about its causes, consequences and prevention as well as nutrition emergency interventions. Coping strategies that may be adopted by households in response to constrained food supplies will be described, using local examples. Learning Outcomes for Study Session 8 When you have studied this session, you should be able to: 8. Utilisation (the capacity to transform food into the desired nutritional outcome). If these conditions are not fulﬁlled then the household is said to be in the state of food insecurity. Chronic food insecurity is commonly described as the result of 97 overwhelming poverty indicated by a lack of assets (means of living). Acute food insecurity is usually considered to be more of a short-term phenomenon related either to manmade or unusual natural shocks, such as drought. While the chronically food insecure population may experience food deﬁcits relative to need in any given year, irrespective of the impact of shocks, the acutely food insecure require short term assistance to help them cope with unusual circumstances that impact temporarily on their lives and livelihoods. Both chronic and acute problems of food insecurity are widespread and severe in Ethiopia. Rural Urban Others Chronic Resource poor Low income Refugees households households employed in informal sector Displaced people Landless or land-scarce households Those outside the labour market Poor pastoralists Elderly, disabled and sick Female-headed households Some female-headed households Elderly, disabled and sick Street children Poor non-agricultural households Newly established settlers Acute Resource poor Urban poor vulnerable Groups affected by households vulnerable to economic shocks, temporary civil unrest to shocks, especially especially those drought causing food price rises Farmers and others in drought prone areas Pastoralists Others vulnerable to economic shocks (eg. People living in low income households, with informal employment are also very vulnerable. In Ethiopia natural and man- made disasters are the commonest causes of household food insecurity. Drought and conﬂict are the main factors that increase problems of food production, distribution and access. High rates of population growth and poverty also play a part, within an already difﬁcult environment of fragile ecosystems where it might be difﬁcult to produce sufﬁcient food. The fact that almost 80% of the population in Ethiopia depends almost exclusively on agriculture for its consumption and income needs means that measures to address the problems of poverty and food insecurity must mainly be found within the agricultural sector. Other natural disasters such as pest infestations destroy area-speciﬁc production levels and the threat of locust swarms is often present. Currently there is an ineffective weather and pest early warning system in the country. Depending only on rainwater for farming when there is variable rainfall in some of the arid areas is not reliable for producing sufﬁcient food supply. Initiatives in Ethiopia, such as using irrigation systems, water harvest technology and drip irrigation, are encouraging steps that need to be strengthened further. Causes of food insecurity Mechanism (how it leads to food insecurity) Rapid population growth A high rate of population growth calls for more food production and the need for ploughing more land. Population may exceed the carrying capacity of the fragile environment in some areas At the household level the food produced from the same plot of land that the household has may not be sufﬁcient. The chances of drought occurring in parts of Ethiopia have increased the probability of food insecurity, especially in the arid and pastoralist areas (northern and eastern parts of Ethiopia) Traditional rain-dependent farming systems Lack of agricultural intensiﬁcation and low agricultural productivity means that many of those in rural areas remain subsistence producers. Therefore, the large quantity of food at low prices which is essential for economic growth in urban areas is not available Stop reading for a while and think of the causes of food insecurity in your area. Indirect indicators can also give clues to the presence of household food insecurity. These include measuring the percentage of children under ﬁve years old who are malnourished and other early warning signs of vulnerability such as low rainfall or the presence of other disasters. One of the most common methods for identifying food-insecure households or regions is to look at the frequency and types of coping strategies. The different types of coping strategies are markers of the severity of conditions, often categorised into four distinct stages of food insecurity. Stage 1: Insurance strategies The ﬁrst stage of household food insecurity is marked by the initial shortage of food, or inability to provide sufﬁcient quantities of food to all members of the household. Households may have prepared for a food quantity shortfall, as in the case of seasonal production, by storing quantities of grain or owning livestock that can be quickly sold, traded, or used for food (in the case of agricultural societies). These are often referred to as insurance (reserve food crisis), and are not intended to be a main source of income or an integral part of income generation, simply crisis insurance. But, before any assets are sold, changes in diet and frequency of meals per day are the ﬁrst adaptations undertaken. Rationing of food consumption is a very common response, and is started and planned generally far in advance of selling any assets. The frequency and severity of coping strategies practiced will vary according to the causes of the food shortage (chronic vs. Stage 2: Crisis strategies I The second stage of food insecurity is marked by the sale of assets, speciﬁcally non-productive assets. At this point, in the food security crisis, food consumption becomes more important than holding onto assets. Jewellery, goats, chickens, other livestock and any other asset that serves as crisis insurance would be sold. Generally, the assets that are preserved are those related to income generation, such as land, farming equipment, oxen and cattle.
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