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CURSO DE INGLÊS EM NATAL

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By A. Bogir. Zion Bible Institute.

As a vehicle for applying medical knowledge to solving problems purchase extra super cialis 100 mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction medication options, the healthcare system has become increasingly cumbersome buy generic extra super cialis 100 mg on-line erectile dysfunction caused by hydrochlorothiazide, user- unfriendly order extra super cialis from india zma erectile dysfunction, and expensive. When the Internet opened up new channels for consumers to access medical knowledge directly, it was rapidly flooded with users. According to a recent Harris poll, roughly 110 million Americans used the Internet to seek health information in 2002. According to Peter Drucker (see Note 1), large healthcare institutions, like urban academic health centers, may be the most complex organizations in human history. Not only do the medical problems presented at the point of service vary tremendously, but no inventory exists; health services are, for the most part, custom manufactured for individual patients on a “just in time” basis. For most healthcare, there is no template on which physicians can rely to make decisions about health. This is because professional consensus on what best practice is or ought to be is only now emerging. Perhaps most significantly, more complex, highly trained health professionals collide at the point of care than in any other business in our economy. Each profession has its own unique view of the patient’s needs, its own language for describing those needs, and an intensely territorial view of its involvement in care. Collaboration The Information Quagmire 7 among professionals is vital to effective care, yet professions compete for resources and control over patients. It is on the verge of revolutionizing medi- cal practice, dramatically improving communication among physi- cians and between physicians and patients. Whereas hospitals and major insurers have been connected elec- tronically for years through dedicated, high-bandwidth telephone conduits called T1 lines, the advent of the Internet has recently brought affordable broadband connect ivity to doctors and patients. The Internet has not only brought new options for physicians and patients to connect with one another, it has made possible con- nectivity to and networking with thousands of colleagues and tens of thousands of patients worldwide. Complex software can now be maintained efficiently at a single site on remote servers, which hospital and physician users can reach by way of a web browser and high-speed 8 Digital Medicine Internet connections. Clinical and financial information can be sent rapidly to remote locations and returned to the institutions or care- givers that need it to make care decisions. It markedly reduces the time and cost of finding answers to medical questions on the Internet and may be more important to medicine than any other knowledge domain. Computer-assisted Diagnosis Computer-assisted diagnosis will penetrate into the nucleus of hu- man cells, providing an extraordinarily detailed and highly personal map of a patient’s potential health risks, including the risks of various The Information Quagmire 9 forms of therapy. This in turn will enable the custom fabrication of therapies to control unique risks for disease and adverse reactions to treatment and eventually extinguish diseases before they flower into illness or threaten our lives. Genetic information will play a part in computer-assisted diagnosis, enabling physicians to reduce adverse drug reactions, adjust dosages to an optimal therapeutic result, and avoid wasting drugs on patients who are unlikely to re- spond to them. Genetic information will become an essential part of our health records and help provide a basis for a new, exquisitely personal, and proactive form of medicine. Powerful computing engines have dramatically enhanced mature diagnostic imaging technologies like magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. These technologies can today create live, three-dimensional images of internal organs that provide not only vivid anatomical detail, but also indicate whether the organs are functioning properly. These imaging technologies will be powerful enough to detect threatening molecular and genetic changes in our cells as they are occurring. Thanks to growing broadband Internet capacity and internal communications networks (or intranets), dig- ital images and their interpretations can be moved, literally at light speed, to the desktops of clinicians anywhere in the world without being translated into film or paper. Almost 30 years of frustrating progress in medical informatics are yielding promising new “intel- ligent” clinical applications that will save both lives and dollars. Computer systems that can communicate with clinicians, patients, and patients’ families and respond intelligently to the health risks they confront are within realization. Intelligent clinical information systems will be continuously aware of a patient’s condition and will alert the care team to prob- 10 Digital Medicine lems as they arise, as well as recommend courses of action to achieve the best outcome. Clinical information systems will no longer pas- sively record what physicians do. Rather, they will actively shape the care process, providing a “navigational system” for guiding care and a “flight plan” for improving health. This plan will be transparent, accessible to patients and their families, and customizable, enabling the clinical team and patients to examine the studies, data, and justifications for recommended care. Dissemination and Care-decision Capabilities Information technology will enable expert medical knowledge to pervade our societies, transcending the constraints of geography, language, and local infrastructure. Finally, information will enable pa- tients and their families to have more control over their own lives and health. It will provide them secure and reliable personal health records and a “dashboard” on their home computer’s web browser that will help them manage their relationship to their doctors, hos- pitals, pharmacies, and the rest of the health system. The technologies you will learn more about in this book—electronic medical records, clinical decision support, genetic diagnosis, medical imaging, telemedicine, The Information Quagmire 11 digital business systems in health insurance and health systems— are all connected by the Internet to one another. The Internet pro- vides both the connectivity for all these different but reinforcing technologies and the lubricant of information flow throughout the health system. Between this potential and today’s information quagmire stands a huge societal commitment: an expenditure that could exceed $300 billion in the United States alone over the next ten years. Healthcare or- ganizations of all types face a large skill gap in adapting these power- ful new tools and a steep learning curve for the firms providing the technology. However, healthcare institutions and professions must take on the challenge to implement technology, a task that includes the concepts and processes described in this book. In the pre-digital age we are leaving, the vital knowledge about medical history and treat- ment options would have been found imprisoned in paper and film—in the form of multiple medical records, medical texts, and journals—or locked in the memories of those who have recently provided care. The only way for the care team to use this informa- tion was to have physical possession of it, read it, and interpret it in an effort to figure out a treatment plan. Furthermore, for care team members to develop and implement such a plan, two or more members typically needed to be on the telephone at the same time or in the same room to coordinate their efforts. In the digital age we are entering, vital information and knowl- edge about conditions, as well as how to treat them, will become as mobile as quicksilver. This information will be able to travel anywhere in the world with broadband connectivity at the speed of light. Every piece of this knowledge about patients and the medical problems confronting them will be converted over the next decade from paper and film to digital files. Moreover, to use that knowl- 13 edge, the only thing that caregivers will need is access to a computer system connected to patients’ records. Yet the big picture—the extent of the revolution—has eluded healthcare providers, because they cannot see how all these tech- nologies will come together to change how the care team behaves and how consumers interact with the health system. This chapter explores this convergence by looking at the different knowledge domains—molecular and cellular, tissues and organ systems, care processes—relevant to treatment. It also discusses the technical as- pects of care as they evolve and how they will affect healthcare delivery, including remote medicine, the Internet, and electronic medical records. The chapter continues with an examination of a navigation system for clinical care and the prospects for its use by physicians in a teacher/protector role, and it concludes by addressing technical requirements for the digital revolution to continue. It is digital software—the most complex software known in the universe—comprising three billion bits of chemical “code” embedded in the nucleus of each cell in the body. This amazing molecule contains not only the template for every one of the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the body, but also the assembly instructions for turning those proteins into a functioning human being.

A 4-year-old boy is brought to the physician by his parents because of a 4-month history of difficulty running and frequent falls purchase 100 mg extra super cialis fast delivery circumcision causes erectile dysfunction. His parents report that his calves have been gradually increasing in size during this period purchase genuine extra super cialis on-line erectile dysfunction treatment charlotte nc. An 18-year-old man is brought to the emergency department 10 minutes after he sustained a stab wound to his chest buy extra super cialis discount impotence guide. His pulse is 130/min, respirations are 8/min and shallow, and palpable systolic blood pressure is 60 mm Hg. Examination shows a 2-cm wound at the left sixth intercostal space at the midclavicular line. A 70-year-old man is admitted to the hospital for elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Ten days after admission to the hospital because of acute pancreatitis, a 56-year-old man with alcoholism develops chills and temperatures to 39. A 24-year-old nulligravid woman is brought to the emergency department after a syncopal episode at work. She has had progressively severe cramps in the lower abdomen over the past 6 hours. She has had spotty vaginal bleeding for 2 days; her last menstrual period began 7 weeks ago. Examination shows blood in the vaginal vault and diffuse abdominal tenderness; there is pain with cervical motion. A 52-year-old man comes to the physician because of a 5-month history of pain in his left knee that is exacerbated by walking long distances. His pulse is 82/min and regular, respirations are 16/min, and blood pressure is 130/82 mm Hg. Examination of the left knee shows mild crepitus with flexion and extension; there is no effusion or warmth. X-rays of the knees show narrowing of the joint space in the left knee compared with the right knee. A previously healthy 32-year-old man comes to the emergency department because of a 3-day history of pain and swelling of his right knee. Two weeks ago, he injured his right knee during a touch football game and has had swelling and bruising for 5 days. A 57-year-old woman with inoperable small cell carcinoma of the lung has had lethargy, loss of appetite, and nausea for 1 week. A 3799-g (8-lb 6-oz) female newborn is born by cesarean delivery because of a breech presentation. Initial examination shows a palpable clunk when the left hip is abducted, flexed, and lifted forward. A previously healthy 72-year-old man comes to the physician because of decreased urinary output during the past 2 days; he has had no urinary output for 8 hours. His serum urea nitrogen concentration is 88 mg/dL, and serum creatinine concentration is 3. A 3-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department because of a 2-week history of persistent cough and wheezing. An expiratory chest x-ray shows hyperinflation of the right lung; there is no mediastinal or tracheal shift. Two hours after undergoing a right hepatic lobectomy, a 59-year-old woman has a distended abdomen. Three days after undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, a 42-year-old woman has the onset of hematomas at all surgical sites. She was treated for deep venous thrombosis 3 years ago but was not taking any medications at the time of this admission. Prior to the operation, she received heparin and underwent application of compression stockings. Two days after undergoing surgical repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, a 67-year-old man requires increasing ventilatory support. A previously healthy 62-year-old man comes to the physician because of a 2-month history of cough. Fasting serum studies show a total cholesterol concentration of 240 mg/dL and glucose concentration of 182 mg/dL. A 3-year-old girl is brought to the emergency department because of left leg pain after falling at preschool 2 hours ago. She has consistently been at the 10th percentile for height and weight since birth. An x-ray shows a new fracture of the left femur and evidence of previous fracturing. B - 131 - Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Systems* General Principles, including ethics and patient safety 1%–5% Immunologic Disorders 1%–5% Diseases of the Blood 5%–10% Mental Disorders 1%–5% Diseases of the Nervous System 10%–15% Cardiovascular Disorders 15%–20% Diseases of the Respiratory System 10%–15% Nutritional and Digestive Disorders 10%–15% Gynecologic Disorders 1%–5% Renal, Urinary, Male Reproductive Systems 5%–10% Obstetric Disorders 1%–5% Diseases of the Skin 1%–5% Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders 5%–10% Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 5%–10% Physician Task Promoting Health and Health Maintenance 1%–5% Understanding Mechanisms of Disease 5%–10% Establishing a Diagnosis 25%–35% Applying Principles of Management 45%–55% Patient Age Birth to 17 5%–10% 18 to 65 60%–65% 66 and older 15%–20% *A subset of items across the organ systems includes content that focuses on resuscitation/trauma (~15%) and environmental/toxicologic disorders (~15%). A 32-year-old woman comes to the emergency department 3 hours after the sudden onset of a severe headache. A 24-year-old nulligravid woman is brought to the emergency department after a syncopal episode at work. She has had progressively severe cramps in the lower abdomen over the past 6 hours. She has had spotty vaginal bleeding for 2 days; her last menstrual period began 7 weeks ago. Examination shows blood in the vaginal vault and diffuse abdominal tenderness; there is pain with cervical motion. A 15-month-old girl is brought to the emergency department after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure at home. The seizure stopped spontaneously after 2 minutes, and she seemed sleepy afterward. Her parents state that yesterday she had a mild runny nose but otherwise has been well. An 18-year-old man is brought to the emergency department 10 minutes after he sustained a stab wound to his chest. His pulse is 130/min, respirations are 8/min and shallow, and palpable systolic blood pressure is 60 mm Hg. Examination shows a 2-cm wound at the left sixth intercostal space at the midclavicular line. A 27-year-old man is brought to the emergency department 20 minutes after his roommate found him unconscious on their bathroom floor. B - 136 - Internal Medicine Advanced Clinical Systems General Principles 5%–10% Immunologic Disorders 1%–5% Diseases of the Blood 5%–10% Mental Disorders 1%–5% Diseases of the Nervous System 5%–10% Cardiovascular Disorders 10%–15% Diseases of the Respiratory System 10%–15% Nutritional and Digestive Disorders 10%–15% Female Reproductive System 1%–5% Renal, Urinary, Male Reproductive Systems 5%–10% Diseases of the Skin 1%–5% Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders 1%–5% Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 8%–12% Physician Task Promoting Health and Health Maintenance 5%–10% Understanding Mechanisms of Disease 5%–10% Establishing a Diagnosis 35%–45% Applying Principles of Management 40%–50% Site of Care Emergency Department 20%–30% Inpatient 70%–80% Patient Age 17 to 65 65%–75% 66 and older 25%–35% - 137 - 1. A previously healthy 67-year-old man is admitted to the hospital because of lethargy, confusion, muscle cramps, and decreased appetite for 7 days.

Dosage and duration – Treatment of recurrent or extensive oral and oesophageal herpes in immunocompromised patients buy extra super cialis with a visa erectile dysfunction treatment sydney, treatment of herpetic kerato-uveitis Child under 2 years: 200 mg 5 times per day for 7 days Child over 2 years and adult: 400 mg 5 times per day for 7 days – Treatment of genital herpes Child over 2 years and adult: 400 mg 3 times per day for 7 days discount extra super cialis 100mg amex erectile dysfunction cycling; in immunocompromised patients purchase genuine extra super cialis line erectile dysfunction treatment without medication, continue treatment until clinical resolution – Secondary prophylaxis of herpes in patients with frequent and/or severe recurrences Child under 2 years: 200 mg 2 times per day Child over 2 years and adult: 400 mg 2 times per day – Treatment of severe forms of zoster Adult: 800 mg 5 times per day for 7 days Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with hypersensitivity to aciclovir. Aciclovir administration does not reduce the likelihood of developing zoster- associated pain but reduces the overall duration of this pain. When necessary: half a tablet 3 times/day – Adult: 3 to 6 tablets/day after meals or 1 tablet during painful attacks Duration – According to clinical response Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – May cause: constipation (except when tablets contain magnesium salts or magnesium hydroxide). Increase to 50 mg once daily the following week, then 75 mg once daily at bedtime as of the third week (max. Duration – Neuropathic pain: several months (3 to 6) after pain relief is obtained, then attempt to stop treatment. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with recent myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, closed-angle glaucoma, prostate disorders. Treatment should be discontinued in the event of severe reactions (mental confusion, urinary retention, cardiac rhythm disorders); • psychic disorders: exacerbation of anxiety, possibility of a suicide attempt at the beginning of therapy, manic episode during treatment. Remarks – Sedative effect occurs following initial doses, analgesic effect is delayed for 7 to 10 days. For depression, it is necessary to wait 3 weeks before assessing therapeutic efficacy. Therapeutic action – Antimalarial Indications – Treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, in combination with artesunate – Completion treatment following parenteral therapy for severe falciparum malaria, in combination with artesunate Presentation – 200 mg amodiaquine hydrochloride tablet, containing 153 mg amodiaquine base Dosage and duration – Child and adult: 10 mg base/kg once daily for 3 days Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in the event of previous severe adverse reaction to treatment with amodiaquine (e. However, given the risks associated with malaria, the combination artesunate-amodiaquine may be used during the first trimester if it is the only effective treatment available. The addition of clavulanic acid to amoxicillin extends its spectrum of activity to cover beta-lactamase producing Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some Gram-negative anaerobes. Indications – Animal bites, if antibiotic therapy or antibiotic prophylaxis is clearly indicated – Second line treatment of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis, when amoxicillin alone given at high dose failed – Acute uncomplicated cystitis (no systemic signs) in girls > 2 years – Postpartum upper genital tract infection – Severe pneumonia: parenteral to oral switch therapy in patients treated with ceftriaxone + cloxacillin Presentation – The ratio of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid varies according to the manufacturer: Ratio 8:1 – 500 mg amoxicillin/62. Dosage (expressed in amoxicillin) – Animal bites; second line treatment of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis • Child < 40 kg: 45 to 50 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses (if using ratio 8:1 or 7:1) or in 3 divided doses (if using ratio 4:1) Note: the dose of clavulanic acid should not exceed 12. Depending on the formulation available: Ratio 8:1: 3000 mg/day = 2 tablets of 500/62. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to penicillin-allergic patients and patients with history of hepatic disorders during a previous treatment with co-amoxiclav. The maximum dose (expressed in amoxicillin) that can be given with these formulations is 50 mg/kg/day, without exceeding 1500 mg/day. These therapeutic combinations can be coformulated tablets (artesunate and the 2nd antimalarial combined in the same tablet, in blister-pack containing a complete course of treatment) or co-blistered tablets (tablets of artesunate and tablets of the 2nd antimalarial in the same blister-pack containing a complete course of treatment). Therapeutic action – Antimalarial Indications – Treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria – Completion treatment following parenteral therapy for severe falciparum malaria Presentation – 50 mg tablet Dosage and duration – Child and adult: 4 mg/kg/day once daily for 3 days Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – May cause: gastrointestinal disturbances, headache and dizziness. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine is administered as a single dose on D1, with the first dose of artesunate. If half tablets are used, remaining 1/2 tablets may be given to another patient if administered within 24 hours. Dosage and duration – Treatment Child: 150 to 200 mg/day in 3 or 4 divided doses Adult: 500 to 750 mg/day in 3 or 4 divided doses The treatment is continued until symptoms improve (1 to 2 weeks), then a preventive treatment is given as long as the situation requires. For information: – Mild to moderate persistent asthma Child: 100 to 400 micrograms/day in 2 or 4 divided doses Adult: 500 to 1000 micrograms/day in 2 or 4 divided doses – Severe persistent asthma Child: up to 800 micrograms/day in 2 or 4 divided doses Adult: up to 1500 micrograms/day in 2 or 4 divided doses Shake the inhaler. Co-ordination between the hand and inhalation is very difficult in certain patients (children under 6 years, elderly patients, etc. Duration – According to clinical response Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with untreated active tuberculosis. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with closed-angle glaucoma, decompensated heart disease, prostate disorders, gastrointestinal obstruction or atony. Administer in the lowest effective dose and observe the child (risk of anticholinergic effects, e. Remarks – Biperiden is also used in Parkinson’s disease: • as monotherapy early in the course of the disease; • in combination with levodopa in the most advanced stages. Tablets must be taken daily, at night (bisacodyl is effective 6 to 12 hours after administration), until the end of the opioid treatment. Regular follow up (frequency/consistency of stools) is essential in order to adjust dosage correctly. Remarks – To prevent constipation in patients taking opioids, use lactulose if the patient’s stools are solid; use bisacodyl if the patient’s stools are soft. Dosage – When pyrimethamine is used as primary or secondary prophylaxis for toxoplasmosis Adult: 25 to 30 mg once weekly – During treatment of toxoplasmosis Adult: 10 to 25 mg once daily – During treatment of isosporiasis Adult: 5 to 15 mg once daily Duration – For the duration of the pyrimethamine treatment Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Pregnancy: no contra-indication – Breast-feeding: no contra-indication Remarks – Folic acid cannot be used as an alternative to folinic acid for the treatment of toxoplasmosis: folic acid reduces the antiprotozoal activity of pyrimethamine. Do not stop treatment abruptly, even if changing treatment to another antiepileptic. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with atrioventricular block, history of bone marrow depression. However, if treatment has been started before the pregnancy, do not stop treatment and use the minimal effective dose. Due to the risk of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, administer vitamin K to the mother and the newborn infant. The administration of folic acid during the first trimester may reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in case of poisoning by caustic or foaming products, or hydrocarbons: risk of aggravation of lesions during vomiting (caustic products), aspiration pneumonia (foaming products, hydrocarbons), and airway obstruction due to foaming when vomiting (foaming products). Therapeutic action – Phenicol antibacterial Indications – Alternative to first-line treatments of bubonic plague – Alternative to first-line treatments of typhoid fever – Completion treatment following parenteral therapy with chloramphenicol Presentation – 250 mg capsule Dosage – Child from 1 year to less than 13 years: 50 mg/kg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses; 100 mg/kg/day in severe infection (max. In these events, stop treatment immediately; • gastrointestinal disturbances, peripheral and optic neuropathies. If used during the 3rd trimester, risk of grey syndrome in the newborn infant (vomiting, hypothermia, blue-grey skin colour and cardiovascular depression). In areas where resistance to chloroquine is high, chloroquine must be replaced by another effective antimalarial suitable for prophylactic use. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with retinopathy. Dosage – Child from 1 to 2 years: 1 mg 2 times daily – Child from 2 to 6 years: 1 mg 4 to 6 times daily (max. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Administer with caution and monitor use in patients with prostate disorders or closed-angle glaucoma, patients > 60 years and children (risk of agitation, excitability). Dosage – Acute or chronic psychosis Adult: initial dose of 75 mg/day in 3 divided doses; if necessary, the dose may be gradually increased up to 300 mg/day in 3 divided doses (max. Once the patient is stable, the maintenance dose is administered once daily in the evening. Duration – Acute psychosis: minimum 3 months; chronic psychosis: minimum one year. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with closed-angle glaucoma, prostate disorders; to elderly patients with dementia (e.

Even if the tumour is resectable discount generic extra super cialis uk erectile dysfunction drugs and alcohol, the high risk of recur- rence buy online extra super cialis how to get erectile dysfunction pills, together with the major morbidity of surgery Macroscopy/microscopy may mean debulking surgery only and treatment with r Astrocytomas are ill-defined pale areas which are not radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy discount extra super cialis 100mg without prescription erectile dysfunction pills walgreens. Seizures look like astrocytes and there are different histological are treated with anti-epileptic drugs. M usculoskeletal system 8 Clinical, 352 Seronegative arthritides Genetic musculoskeletal disorders, Bone and joint infections, 354 (spondyloarthropathies), 362 375 Osteoarthritis, 357 Connective tissue disorders, 365 Bone tumours, 376 Seropositive arthritis, 359 Crystal arthropathies, 371 Vasculitis, 377 Metabolic bone disorders, 373 Joint swelling Clinical Swelling may be within the joint, the bone or the sur- rounding soft tissue. Joint swelling following an injury Symptoms may be acute due to a haemarthrosis or appear more slowly due to an effusion. Again this Joint disorders often have pain as their presenting fea- may be a mono, oligo/pauci or polyarthritis. Joint pain is described as arthralgia if there is no ac- bution of joint involvement should be elicited including companying swelling or as arthritis if the joint is swollen. The nature of the onset, duration, timing and timing and provoking and relieving factors are impor- exacerbating factors should be noted. Arthritis may involve a ated features such as joint instability should be enquired single joint (monoarticular), less than four joints (oligo about. The relationship to exercise may be important, as inflamma- tory disorders are often worse after periods of inactivity Joint stiffness and relieved by rest, whereas mechanical disorders tend Joint stiffness is another presentation usually associated to be worse on exercise and relieved by rest. A full systems enquiry is necessary as are characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis but may oc- many disorders have multisystem involvement. Less than 10 minutes in sensation including tingling or numbness are often of stiffness is common in osteoarthritis compared with due to abnormalities in nerve function. Establishment of iacstiffnessisaparticularfeatureofankylosingspondyli- the distribution helps to differentiate peripheral nerve tis. Locking of a joint is a sudden inability to complete damage from nerve root damage. Loss of function is im- amovement, such as extension at the knee caused by a portant as therapy aims to both relieve pain and establish mechanical block such as a foreign body in the joint or necessary function for daily activities. Seropositivity allows prediction of severity and the need for earlier aggressive therapy and Although some of the available tests used in diagnosis increases the likelihood of extra-articular features. Combin- ing tests may allow a clinical diagnosis to be confimed Joint aspiration (see Table 8. Rheumatoid factor: These are antibodies of any class Unexplained joint swelling may require aspiration to directed against the Fc portion of immunoglobulins. The aspiration itself may be of therapeu- The routine laboratory test detects only IgM antibodies, tic value lowering the pressure and relieving pain. It is which agglutinate latex particles or red cells opsonised often coupled with intra-articular washout or instilla- with IgG. It is the presence of these IgM rheumatoid tion of steroid or antibiotic as appropriate. Examina- factor antibodies that is used to describe a patient as tion of the synovial fluid may be of diagnostic value (see seropositive or seronegative. Local spread from a soft tissue infection atively birefringent, whereas the crystals of pseudogout may also occur. Previously Haemophilus influenzae was seen in young children, Many modalities of joint imaging and direct visualisa- but it is now rare due to vaccination. Patients with tion are used to diagnose and follow the course of mus- sickle cell anaemia are prone to osteomyelitis due to culoskeletaldisordersandareoftenusedincombination. The findings in individual conditions will be described r Direct spread from local infection may occur with later. Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, anaerobes and gram- r X-ray: Many musculoskeletal disorders have charac- negative organisms. Pathophysiology Comparison of X-ray changes over time is especially In children the long bones are most often involved; in useful in monitoring disorders that have a degenera- adults, vertebral, sternoclavicular and sacroiliac bones tive course. In- r Ulrasound is of value in examining the joint and sur- fections from a distant focus spread via the blood stream rounding soft tissue. In children the organisms usually diagnosing the cause of a painful hip not amenable to settle in the metaphysis because the growth disc (physis) palpation. Acute inflammation occurs accompanied by a rise in It can demonstrate both bone and soft tissue disor- pressure leading to pain and disruption of blood flow. In children infectious conditions prior to X-ray changes, it is of the physis acts as a physical barrier to intra-articular great value in identifying malignant bone infiltration spread. Bone and joint infections Clinical features Presentationrangesfromanacuteillnesswithpain,fever, swelling and acute tenderness over the affected bone, to Acute osteomyelitis an insidious onset of non-specific dull aching and vague Definition systemic illness. Complications Age r As thebonehealsandnewboneisformed,infectedtis- Normally seen in children and adults over 50 years. Chapter 8: Bone and joint infections 355 Sinuses form in the presence of continuing infection, Chronic osteomyelitis resulting in a chronic osteomyelitis. Aetiology Investigations Previously, chronic osteomyelitis resulted from poorly r The X-ray finding may take 2–3 weeks to develop. It now occurs more fre- raised periostium is an early sign that may be seen quentlyinpost-traumaticosteomyelitis. With healing there is sclerosis and seques- Pathophysiology trated bone fragments may be visible. Blood cultures are positive in the bone may remain dormant for years giving rise to 50%. Clinical features The clinical course is typically ongoing chronic pain Management r and low-grade fever following an episode of acute os- Surgical drainage should be used if there is a subpe- teomyelitis. There may be pus discharging through a si- riosteal abscess, if systemic upset is refractory to an- nus. However, if the pus is retained within the bone or tibiotic treatment or if there is suspected adjacent join the sinus becomes obstructed, rising pressure leads to an involvement. Par- enteral treatment is often required for a prolonged period (2–4 weeks) prior to a long course of oral an- Investigations tibiotics to ensure eradication. Theperiostiummayberaisedwithunderlying with a third-generation cephalosporin to cover for new bone formation. Management r Adequate analgesia is essential and may be improved Discharging sinuses require dressing, and if an abscess with splints to immobilise the limb (which also helps persists despite antibiotic therapy it should be incised to avoid contractures). Prolonged combined parenteral antibiotics to reduce associated muscle disuse atrophy and to are required. In early stages the joint space is preserved, but later there is narrowing and ir- Tuberculous bone infection regularity with bone erosion and calcification within adjacent soft tissue. Incidence Patients with tuberculosis have a 5% lifetime risk of Management developing bone disease. Chemotherapy with combination anti-tuberculous agents for 12–18 months (see page 105). Rest and trac- tion may be useful; if the articular surfaces are damaged, Age arthrodesis or joint replacement may be required.

Flexible cystoscopy can be done under It is freely filtered 100 mg extra super cialis with visa erectile dysfunction generics, a small amount is also secreted at local anaesthetic cheap extra super cialis 100mg with visa erectile dysfunction caused by radiation therapy, as a daycase procedure buy extra super cialis with a visa erectile dysfunction systems, but rigid cys- the tubules. Plasma creatinine is increased by strenu- toscopyisperformedunderanepiduralorgeneralanaes- ous exercise, ingestion of meat, certain drugs (trimetho- thetic. The bladder is distended with distilled water or prim and cimetidine) impair tubular secretion. It is de- saline, and forceps or diathermy loops can be inserted creased in malnutrition, wasting diseases, immediately through the instrument to take biopsies, and treat su- after surgery and by corticosteroids. In most patients, serial or previous spected, and fibreoptic ureteroscopes can be passed up, measurements of creatinine are useful to monitor the to look for ureteric lesions such as stones or carcinoma. Clearance is defined as the ‘virtual’ volume of blood cleared (by the kidney) of solute per unit time. When nephrons are lost or are not func- where U = urinary concentration, V = urine flow rate tioning properly, there is compensation by the remain- and P = plasma creatinine. It is 24-hour urinary collections are inconvenient and in- higher following protein intake, in a catabolic state, af- accurate. The best known of these is the creatinine because it is avidly reabsorbed at the proximal Cockcroft and Gault formula: tubules in a fluid-depleted state. If the creatinine is also proportionally raised (creatinine is normally Forwomen multiply by 1. This is indicated in severe Chapter 6: Clinical 231 be performed in cases of deterioration of renal function in patients with known kidney disease, to help guide treatment, for example in systemic lupus erythemato- sus, and relatively frequently in renal transplant patients particularly to look for rejection. The biopsy can be performed percutaneously, or at open surgery (unusual unless the other method is not possible, or contraindicated, e. Ultrasound guidance is used, and usually two cores are obtained using a spring-loaded biopsy needle. These are examined under light microscopy, electron microscopy andimmunofluoresenceorimmunoperoxidasestaining. Serum creatinine Complications include haematuria, bleeding under the renal capsule and bleeding out into the retroperi- Figure 6. In up to 3% renal failure (creatinine clearance becomes inaccurate), of individuals, blood transfusion is required for bleed- for kidney donors and patients receiving chemotherapy. Contraindications to percutaneous renal biopsy: Anion gap calculation is useful in metabolic acidosis, to r Clotting abnormality or low platelets (unless cor- differentiate causes. The r Small kidneys (<9 cm), as this indicates chronic irre- formula used to calculate the anion gap varies from versible kidney damage. In metabolic acidosis, an increased anion gap occurs due Relative contraindications include obesity (technically to raised acid levels: r difficult), single kidney (except of a transplanted kidney) Lactic acidosis (exercise, shock, hypoxia, liver failure). In metabolic acidosis, a normal anion gap indicates that there is failure to excrete acid or loss of base: Dialysis r Failure to excrete acid occurs in renal tubular disease When the kidneys fail to a degree that causes symptoms and Addison’s disease. Despite advances in technology, these are still Renal biopsy is indicated when glomerular disease is sus- unable to completely mimic renal function, and none pected,andinunexplainedacuterenalfailure. Haemodialysis Although many patients cope very well with dialy- Blood has to be pumped from the patient, and passed sis, common symptoms include headache, joint pains through a ‘dialyser’, sometimes called an artificial kid- and fatigue during and after a dialysis session. The dialyser consists of an array of semi-permeable plications include hypotension, line infections, dialysis membranes. The blood flows past the membrane on one amyloid and increased cardiovascular mortality. Smallsoluteswithalarge and solutes across a highly permeable membrane and concentration gradient diffuse rapidly, e. Before the blood is returned to the body, atinine,whereasdiffusionisslowerwithlargermolecules fluid is replaced using a lactate or bicarbonate-based so- or if the concentration gradient is low. Proteins are too large to cross the mem- of fluid and changes in electrolyte concentration take brane. Underdialysis (lack changedacrosstheperitonealmembranebyputtingdial- of adequate dialysis) is associated with an increase in ysis solution into the abdominal cavity. Dialysateisrunundergravityintotheperi- toneal cavity and the fluid is left there for several hours. Blood from Blood to Small solutes diffuse down their concentration gradients patient patient between capillary blood vessels in the peritoneal lining and the dialysate. Patients often develop some consti- Dialysate out Dialysate in pation which can limit the flow of dialysate, they are treated with laxatives. Chapter 6: Disorders of the kidney 233 Blood Blood from patient to patient Semipermeable membrane Replacement fluid in (can be less than haemofiltrate to treat fluid overload) Haemofiltrate out e. There is a large degree of bacterial peritonitis are the most common serious com- redundancy in the kidney, so many nephrons may be lost plications. This can be treated by adding antibiotics to the It is useful when considering the causes of renal failure peritoneal dialysate. The kidneys have three important functions: 1 Fluid and electrolyte balance, including acid–base bal- ance. It consists of the glomerulus and its associated vascular supply and the tubules, loop Figure 6. High phosphates cause pruritus (itching), chronic r In prerenal failure, the kidney is not damaged but renal failure leads to renal osteodystrophy. Recovery may be possible, though if the disease is severe and scarring results, full Acute renal failure functional recovery is unlikely. The causes may be divided into prerenal, renal and postrenal, whilst they all have different mechanisms, the Renal failure causes result is loss of the three functions of the kidney: fluid 1 Arise in serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, hy- and electrolyte balance, excretion of waste products and drogen ions (causing a metabolic acidosis) and potas- toxins, and hormone synthesis (see Table 6. The rate at which these rise depends on a number of factors, including how Clinical features catabolic the patient is, i. Complete anuria is only seen with bladder out- Oliguria (urine output <15 mL/hour or <400 mL/ flow obstruction, bilateral (or unilateral in a single 24hour) is common, but does not occur with all causes functioning kidney) ureteric obstruction. Water retention can lead to r Hyperventilationmaybeduetohypoxiaorrespiratory hyponatraemia. Hypovolaemia Bleeding, dehydration, r Urgent urinalysis, followed by microscopy (to look for and/or diuretics hypotension Sepsis, cardiac failure, drugs cells and casts) and culture. Acute glomeru- Primary and secondary causes r Bloods lonephritis of glomerular disease Acute interstitial Pyelonephritis, drugs 1 Anaemia (normochromic, normocytic if underly- nephritis ing disease or in chronic renal failure). These include autoantibody profile, com- It is important to assess the volume status by assess- plement levels, blood and urine tests for myeloma and ing blood pressure, jugular venous pressure, skin turgor, possibly a renal biopsy. Management Acute renal failure is an emergency, with possible life- threatening complications. Complications Reversiblecausesshouldbetreatedassoonaspossible; Hyperkalaemia may cause cardiac arrhythmias and sud- withdraw any potentially nephrotoxic drugs, treat sepsis, den death. Fluid overload may cause cardiac failure, malignant hypertension, and relieve any obstruction. Fluidchallengesmaybe 236 Chapter 6: Genitourinary system required with regular review to ensure that the patient Indications for urgent dialysis does not become fluid overloaded. Central venous r Persistent hyperkalaemia >6 mmol/L despite medical pressure measurement may be helpful, but should therapy not be relied upon over clinical assessment espe- r Severe acidosis cially in the presence of cardiac or pulmonary disease. If blood pressure remains low Prognosis despite filling (such as due to cardiac insufficiency, Depends on underlying cause and concomitant medical sepsis), then additional treatment, usually inotropic conditions. Definition r In fluid overload, or in oliguric renal failure high doses Necrosis of renal tubular epithelium as caused by hypop- of furosemide may be effective in causing a diuresis.

The plaster is changed in series purchase extra super cialis 100mg line erectile dysfunction testosterone, decreasing the plantar flexion and eventually moving toward short-leg casts in a neutral ankle position generic extra super cialis 100 mg with visa erectile dysfunction prevention. Respiratory failure (patient is not able to maintain adequate oxygenation or ventilation) is also a very common cause of death in Rwanda generic extra super cialis 100mg otc erectile dysfunction age 80. Start oxygen with non-rebreather mask (bag reservoir) and consider intubation if possible. Is the patient posturing (sitting upright, uncomfortable, with increased work of breathing)? Consider early intubation if the equipment is available in your hospital and the physician is trained on the procedure. More importantly however, is stabilizing the patient until they reach a referral center. Pneumonia Definition: Infection in the lung space that can be caused by a virus, bacteria, and less often a fungus. Consider a Foley catheter in any patient who is ill appearing and be sure urine output is atleastO. Antibiotics: Treatment regimens are typically based on local sensitivities for pathogens. Large studies do not exist for pathogens specific to Rwanda therefore we must use other guidelines to direct our care. If you do transfer to referral hospital, record what antibiotics were given and for how many days so referral specialists know how to guide treatment upon arrival. Results in mediastinal displacement and kinking of the great vessels, which compromises preload and cardiac output and can cause cardiac collapse/death • Open pneumothorax (sucking chest wound): due to a direct communication between the pleural space and surrounding atmospheric pressure Signs and symptoms • Clinical status and stability of patient is related to size of pneumothorax. Air between the visceral pleural line and chest wall seen as area of black without vascular or lung markings. If the patient will be intubated and/ or given positive pressure ventilation, a chest tube should be placed as a small pneumothorax may be made larger (see Appendix) • If patient does not meet the criteria for stability: o Give supplemental oxygen o Perform immediate need decompression: nd rd ■ Insert14-18gaugeneedleintothe2 or 3 intercostal space, just above the inferior rib, at the mid clavicular line o Place a chest tube as above • If open pneumothorax: o As a temporary measure, the skin wound should be occluded on three sides with a dressing of gauze or plastic sheet: ■ Leave one side of the dressing open to act as a flutter valve (i. Pulmonary Edema Definition: The presence of excess fluid in the alveoli, leading to impaired oxygen exchange. Pulmonary edema can result from either high pulmonary capillary pressure from heart failure (cardiogenic) or from non-cardiogenic causes, such as increased capillary leak from inflammation. Many patients with acute hypertensive pulmonary edema may not be fluid overloaded! Studies have shown that it is an inferior vasopressor compared to others (such as norepinephrine) in cardiogenic shock (Debacker, et al), but it is the best option to temporarily increase blood pressure. Counsel family and patient early to decide when appropriate to switch goals of care towards palliation. Transfer to referral center only after discussion with family and consideration of whether there is possibility of recovery. While the two are different and often unrelated processes, their clinical symptoms and treatments are similar. Can present anxious (because of inability to breathe), tachypneic, tachycardic, and with wheezing. Massive hemoptysis is rare but frequently fatal; definitions vary from 100-600 ml of blood over 24 hours. Only consider if prognosis is reasonable and referral facility will be able to obtain useful tests (i. Effusions can be either transudative (caused by changes in the hydrostatic and or osmotic gradient) or exudative (caused by pleural inflammation and increased permeability). If unable to sit, lie patient on affected side with ipsilateral arm above head ■ Use ultrasound to find the largest pocket of fluid and measure distance from skin to fluid. Stop once fluid is aspirated and inject some Lidocaine to anesthetize the parietal pleura. Make sure to turn the stopcock to the off position when removing the syringe to prevent air from entering the pleural space. Can range from occult and insignificant to massive, causing obstructive shock and death. It may originate from an organ located in the chest or be referred from another part of the body. Signs and symptoms • History: Ask about the following factors o Duration: Constant (likely not cardiac) vs. Causes • Low contractility o Cardiomyopathy o Myocarditis • Poor heart filling o Arrhythmias o Mitral stenosis o Pericardial tamponade • Other valvular heart disease o Examples include acute mitral regurgitation or aortic regurgitation from acute rheumatic fever or endocarditis Signs and symptoms • History o Depends on etiology; may have slowly progressing or acute symptoms o Dyspnea, syncope, weakness, confusion/coma • Exam o Low blood pressure alone should not make the diagnosis. These patients are in shock because their heart is not squeezing well (contractility problem). Once goal is reached, the infusions should be lowered slowly as blood pressure tolerates (do not turn off completely at once). This may need to be reduced with Captopril or nitroglycerin once above pressors have been started and blood pressure is raised. Be aware that this may further lower their blood pressure, therefore, may need to start pressors prior to or just after intubation. Cardiogenic shock secondary to mitral stenosis and rapid heart rate o These patients are in shock because their left ventricle is unable to fill adequately during diastole (preload problem). If they are in rapid atrial fibrillation, defibrillate o If defibrillation does not work, give Amiodarone or Digoxin ■ Amiodarone 150 mg over 10 minutes ■ Digoxin 0. According to data from three district hospital outpatient clinics with access to echocardiography, the leading causes are cardiomyopathy (41%), rheumatic heart disease (33%), hypertensive heart disease (8%), and congenital heart disease (2%). Ischemic heart disease as a cause of heart failure is thought to remain relatively uncommon in Rwanda, particularly in more rural settings. If anything other normal or cardiomyopathy, should be referred for formal echocardiogram (possible candidates for cardiac surgery) Management: Initial approaches to heart failure the same in all patients. Severe heart failure may require aggressive airway management with positive pressure ventilation or intubation. Heart failure secondary to high afterload) o Need to rapidly decrease afterload to allow the left side of the heart to empty ■ N itroglycerin0. Heart failure secondary to poor heart filling: Main causes in Rwanda include tamponade and mitral stenosis o Tamponade ■ Iflargeeffusionandinshock,performimmediatebedside pericardiocentesis (see pericardial effusion chapter for information on procedure) o Mitral stenosis: ■ Look for and treat rapid atrial fibrillation, including anticoagulation. Recommendations • Heart failure is a common presentation in Rwanda, but very difficult to manage in a resource limited environment. If one is not immediately available, use blood pressure measurements (very high or very low will have different treatments as above), renal function (high Cr has worse prognosis), diuresis, and palpation of extremities (cold extremities=shock) to guide your management. Aggressive management is needed early in order to ensure good outcome for patient. Bradycardia may reflect a primary cardiac problem or may be a marker of disease in another system. Tachycardia may reflect a primary cardiac problem or may be a marker of disease in another system. Causes • Sinus tachycardia: The rhythm is a marker of a disease and not a disease itself. When this fluid collection impairs cardiac filling, it is considered pericardial tamponade. Causes • Trauma with a hemopericardium • Infection (Tuberculosis most common; viruses also can cause) • Cancer (often metastatic and often bloody) • Renal failure Signs and symptoms • Pericardial effusion can mimic symptoms of pericarditis including chest pain (often pleuritic and positional), palpitations, malaise, weakness and shortness of breath.

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