By C. Seruk. University of Phoenix.
Testis and kidney 4 5 6 7 9 8 Figure 19-7 Common cutaneous areas of referred pain discount generic advair diskus canada asthma doctor specialist. Spinothalamic tract 9 11 7 8 10 6 5 Figure 19-8 Schematic diagram showing the anatomic basis for visceral referred pain buy cheap advair diskus online asthma definition 95. Many types of autonomic phenomena have been Within the medulla are the cardiovascular and elicited from various parts of the cerebral hemi- the expiratory and inspiratory respiratory centers purchase advair diskus discount asthma symptoms 9dp5dt. Most of the vis- ascending pathways, and so forth), their output is ceral responses are diffuse and tend to overlap funneled to autonomic efferent and, in many cases, somatic reactions. Examples responses elicited by stimulation in the cerebral of such connections are those that control the hemispheres are funneled through the hypothala- heart, the urinary bladder, and the sex organs. In addition to hypothalamic nuclei, other Control of the Heart groups of neurons at various levels also strongly infuence autonomic activities. In the midbrain, The heart is abundantly supplied by parasym- pupillary constriction and lens accommodation pathetic, sympathetic, and afferent nerves centers are located at the levels of the pretectal (Fig. Chapter 19 The Autonomic Nervous System: Visceral Abnormalities 253 Visceral afferent impulses arising from the The coronary arteries are chiefy controlled heart travel centrally via the vagus and sympa- by local metabolic factors. Those in the vagus have cell bod- lism accompanying increased heart rate results ies located in the nodose ganglion. The cardiac in dilation of the coronary arteries and increased vagal afferent fbers enter the solitary tract and blood fow to the heart muscle. The cardiac affer- decreased heart rate results in decreased meta- ent fbers traveling via the sympathetic nerves do bolic rate and constriction of the coronary so on the left side. Cardiac control centers are located in the The urinary bladder and its sphincters are sup- medullary reticular formation. These control plied by parasympathetic, sympathetic, somatic centers are infuenced mainly by impulses motor, and visceral afferent fbers (Fig. Pain and temperature and chemoreceptors located in the walls of the impulses from the mucosa of the fundus travel heart, aorta, and carotid arteries. The mechano- with the sympathetic nerves and reach the spi- receptors or baroreceptors respond to blood pres- nal cord via the dorsal roots of T12 and L1. From sure; the chemoreceptors respond to oxygen and the mucosa at the neck of the bladder, pain and carbon dioxide levels in the circulating blood. The spi- glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves to the soli- nothalamic tract then transmits impulses of both tary tract. After a synapse in the solitary nucleus, groups of pain and temperature fbers to higher these visceral afferent impulses pass to cardiovas- centers. Fullness of the bladder is detected by mech- Increases in blood pressure elicit vagal responses, anoreceptors in the bladder wall that send and decreases in blood pressure cause sympa- impulses to the spinal cord via the sacral para- thetic responses. The spinothalamic tracts Cardiac parasympathetic neurons are carry “fullness” impulses to higher centers in located in the medulla in the vicinity of the the thalamus and cerebral cortex. Postganglionic ascend in the dorsal column–medial lemniscus fbers pass to the sinus and atrioventricu- system. Parasympathetic visceromotor neurons located The cardiac vagal innervation decreases heart in S2, S3, and S4 give rise to preganglionic rate and results in bradycardia. The cardiac sympathetic splanchnic nerves to the inferior mesenteric innervation increases heart rate and results in ganglion. Afferent Efferent Trigone Trigone Pain/temperature (parasympathetic route) Urination imminent Internal sphincter External sphincter (involuntary (voluntary muscle) muscle) Figure 19-10 Schematic diagram showing the innervation of the urinary bladder (gangl, ganglion). Chapter 19 The Autonomic Nervous System: Visceral Abnormalities 255 bladder via the hypogastric and vesicle plexuses neurogenic bladders exist: refex and nonrefex and supply the internal urethral sphincter. The refex neurogenic bladder During bladder filling, the sympathetic fibers is of upper motor neuron type; the nonrefex relax the detrusor muscle directly and also bladder is of lower motor neuron type. The indirectly by inhibiting the parasympathetic refex neurogenic bladder may be uninhibited cells in the vesical ganglia. The uninhibited refex bladder, fibers elicit contraction of the internal urethral which is incontinent but empties fully, results sphincter. Emptying of the bladder is nucleus in S2, S3, and S4 send axons via the normal because refex control of the pontine internal pudendal nerve and its perineal branch micturition centers is intact. The automatic to the skeletal muscle that forms the external ure- refex bladder, which is incontinent and does thral sphincter. A cortical center for bladder is incomplete because the spinal refex voluntary control of the initiation and cessation pathways that trigger the pontine micturition of micturition is located in the superior frontal centers are interrupted. A second pontine micturition center sends excitatory impulses to the lower motor Control of the Sex Organs neurons of the Onuf nucleus that supply the external urethral sphincter. During micturi- The sex organs are innervated by parasym- tion, the pontine parasympathetic excitatory pathetic, sympathetic, and visceral afferent center inhibits the other pontine center. Visceral afferent fbers from the female the inhibited Onuf neurons allows the external and male sex organs pass to the spinal cord urethral sphincter to relax when the detrusor via sympathetic and sacral parasympathetic muscle contracts, and emptying of the bladder routes and have their cell bodies located in the occurs. An exception to the ceral afferent impulses from volume and tension rule that visceral pain fbers follow the sympa- receptors in the bladder wall. At low levels of thetic nerves occurs in the case of pain from bladder distention, these visceral afferent fbers the cervix of the uterus and the prostate. In stimulate the lower motor neurons of the Onuf both cases, pain travels with the parasympa- nucleus, resulting in contraction of the external thetic nerves and enters the spinal cord at S2 sphincter. Postganglionic parasympathetic activity resulting in contraction of the detrusor fbers from the uterovaginal ganglia in the female and emptying of the bladder. Thus, micturi- innervate the vaginal glands and erectile tissue tion is controlled by spinopontospinal refex of the clitoris. Sympathetic preganglionic fbers arise from T10 Parasympathetic activity in women produces through L2 and synapse chiefy in the inferior mes- secretion of vaginal glands and clitoral engorge- enteric ganglion. Postganglionic sympathetic fbers ment; in men, parasympathetic impulses are nec- in the female supply the blood vessels and smooth essary for penile erection. Sympathetic activity muscle of the uterus and vagina, whereas in the in women produces rhythmic contractions of the male, sympathetic postganglionic fbers supply the vagina; in men, the sympathetic nerves are neces- ductus deferens, prostate gland, and seminal vesicle. Chapter 19 The Autonomic Nervous System: Visceral Abnormalities 257 Clinical Connection Two commonly encountered abnor- path in the dorsolateral part of the medullary malities associated with the sym- reticular formation or in the cervical spinal cord pathetic system are Horner syndrome, as in or (2) destruction of the ciliospinal center in the the clinical illustration at the beginning of sympathetic nucleus of C8 and T1. Horner syndrome is characterized characterized by bradycardia, hypotension, by miosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis (absence of bilateral Horner syndrome, and diffculties sweating) and may occur as the result of unilat- in adjusting to a warm environment because eral peripheral or central lesions. The peripheral sweating and cutaneous vasodilation cannot lesions involve (1) preganglionic fbers chiefy in be elicited. This syndrome occurs in acute spinal nerve T1 or in the cervical sympathetic bilateral cervical spinal cord injuries as a result trunk or (2) postganglionic neurons and fbers in of the interruption of the descending impulses the superior cervical ganglion. The signs usually producing Horner syndrome occur chiefy as subside after several days when refex regula- the result of (1) interrupting the pupillodilator tion of sympathetic activities returns. Contrast the effects of stimulation of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves Questions on the heart, urinary bladder, and sex organs. What are the chief differences between the somatic and autonomic efferent While you are attending Grand systems? Describe the origin of the cranial clerkship, a number of patients are parasympathetic system. Name which cranial nerves contain in this patient in an automatic autonomic afferent fbers, and describe and abrupt manner, but bladder their connections. Another patient has bladder What caused the anhidrosis, partial dysfunction of a different type.
The predominant vaginal bacteria in women culture analysis of these three entities order line advair diskus asthma kidshealth. The nomenclature is some- diagnose a candidal infection in these women and times confusing to physicians for S purchase advair diskus without a prescription asthma history. However order advair diskus 500mcg online asthma lung pictures, levels of d-lactic acid were The gene responsible for skin infections and boils, comparable in both groups. The vaginal pH is also introduction of exogenous d-lactic acid might help markedly elevated. It has also been suggested that identifcation of numerous leukocytes, parabasal the bacterial infltrates may merely be secondary cells, and bacterial cocci with the absence or scarcity to a vaginal dermatologic disorder such as erosive of Lactobacillus morphotypes or bacteria typically lichen planus. The with these diagnoses will lead to more individual- vaginal pH is acidic, and on microscopic exam, there ized treatments and improved outcomes. A repeat culture genes proteins, known as M protein, has potent anti- will show a signifcant growth of Lactobacilli, and phagocytosis properties. If a microscope tococcal virulence factor, also blocks phagocytic is available, an infammatory feld with many white functions. Cultures should be obtained on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and inter- for they will show no Lactobacilli and a heavy growth act with receptors on the surface of T lymphocytes. The net effect of the stimulation of a large sizes the importance of obtaining a vaginal culture in fraction of the host’s T lymphocytes is a precipitous these patients with vaginal symptoms. In these patients with cytolytic vaginosis, there is some fragmentation of the epithelial cells. The huge number of white blood cells, no Lactobacilli, standard therapy for years has been to subject the and many bacteria, the feld is dominated by cocci, vagina to repeated short bursts of alkali bicarbon- and there are numerous immature vaginal cells pres- ate of soda, twice a week for several weeks. Culture specimens should be sent to the laboratory with a request for clindamycin suscep- tibilities, for a portion of the Group B streptococcal isolates will be resistant. This is a situation where antibiotic susceptibil- ity studies can mislead the physician. The high concentra- patient with desquamative infammatory vaginitis tion of the Group A Streptococcus at the infection site after copious amounts of purulent material had markedly slows the replication of this bacteria and been removed from the vagina. These vaginal spots reduces the effectiveness of penicillin that acts on the resemble strawberry spots on the cervix in some cell wall of replicating bacteria. The major concern about infections aerobic organisms are involved, oral antibiotics such caused by the Staphylococcus is the life-threatening as ciprofoxacin can be employed. Two components need to The treatment of the aerobic cocci, Group A and be present for this to occur. Staphylococcus isolates, but clindamycin is usually a products because of a history of breast cancer or a good frst choice in the situation. The hoped-for therapeutic lent discharge that has been unsuccessfully treated outcome is that an acidic vaginal environment will by one physician after another. Physicians need prove hospitable to the Lactobacilli in the probi- to be aware of this uncommon condition. The epithelial pathology has been described ing grace of this awareness is that the treatment is by some authors as a vulvovaginal lichen planus. Successes have also been noted with the periodic Clindamycin vaginal cream 2% should be prescribed use of an intravaginal corticosteroid. The patients are relieved of symp- Streptococcus, which is a predominant member of the toms by this approach, as noted by Sobel. If this occurs, The distinctive characteristics of this patient popu- a similar 2-week course of intravaginal clindamy- lation suggest a genetic factor. This should be a sub- cin should be prescribed, but attention must now ject of future study. Cytolytic vaginosis: periodic use of an intravaginal estrogen cream or Misdiagnosed as candidal vaginitis. Infect Dis estradiol vaginal tablets to facilitate the creation of Obstet Gynecol 2004;12:13–16. In addition, an oral probiotic con- cytolytic vaginosis versus vulvovaginal candi- taining Lactobacilli that attaches to epithelial sur- diasis. The pathogenesis of streptococ- matrix metalloproteinase inducer: Implications cal infections: From tooth decay to meningitis. The shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Eagle effect revisited: Effcacy of clindamy- Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol cin, erythromycin, and penicillin in the treat- 2013;79:1835–1842. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol drome: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and 2000;8:217–219. The responsibility for concerns about genital herpes infections (herpes avoiding transmission was laid on the female patient. Over time, study The expected explosion of the numbers of women after study clarifed our understanding of herpes and men with genital herpes never materialized. Instead, a slight decrease over During the early 1980s, medical teaching empha- time has been seen. The sources of these data points sized the theme that women have the responsibility have come from the National Health and Nutrition and ability to avoid transmission of this virus to a Examination Survey. In the 1999–2004 survey, this had genital herpes was women became very ill with their decreased to 17%. The 2005–2008 survey recorded frst outbreak, with perineal pain, fever, and void- another drop to 16. The frst infection was a sentinel event, easily never been told by a doctor or any other health-care recognized by the patient and confrmed by the phy- professional that they had genital herpes. Seroprevalence was higher in women, gling that occurred prior to the visible outbreak of 20. Positivity rates increase this was a time frame in which they could transmit with age, from 1. Vulvovaginal Infections 78 Positive antibody tests are threefold greater among hygiene practices have reduced the number of small non-Hispanic blacks, 32. This pro- One important physician take-home message of vides important long-term information. If she has an outbreak, she is also patients with genital herpes are asymptomatic. In the United States, the cur- are many modifers that can infuence the clinical rent estimate is approximately 1 in 3200 deliveries, presentation of these women. This also offers an rate of neonatal herpes can be reduced by cesarean explanation for the development of genital herpes delivery and limiting the use of invasive fetal moni- lesions in women who have been sexually inactive toring in women with positive cultures who are for varying periods of time. However, An antibody-mediated immune response to genital the virus can periodically be transported back to the herpes virus infection readily occurs as evidenced by genital tract where it infects and replicates in new the accuracy of serological tests to determine expo- epithelial cells. In addition, vaginal and cervical epithelial cells release antiviral factors such as secre- tory leukocyte protease inhibitor and elafn. Intracellular viral particles in the cyto- plasm are engulfed by a double membrane vesicle called an autophagosome.
The observed muscularity of pulmonary arteri- through a process of intimal fbrous hyperplasia buy cheap advair diskus on-line asthmatic bronchitis 4 months. At surgery buy generic advair diskus 500 mcg on-line asthma symptoms for months, pulmonary venous connection is dependent on a right to left very prominent lymphatic vessels can be seen on the surface shunt discount 250mcg advair diskus free shipping asthma definition 6 atlanta, usually at atrial level through a stretched patent fora- of the lungs. Associated the entire pulmonary venous return may pass between the anomalies, particularly a single functional ventricle, are much more likely to occur with heterotaxy syndrome (see 140 Chapter 24). This almost always occurs through a pulmonary venous connection to the coronary sinus when right patent foramen ovale that is rarely restrictive (that is, there is ventricular pressure is greater than 85% of systemic pressure at car- no pressure gradient between the right and left atria). Obstructed pulmonary venous drainage with total anomalous in at least some degree of cyanosis in all patients. Such a child will be tachycardic and hypotensive and The point at which a step up in oxygen saturation is observed will soon demonstrate a profound acidosis with both respira- within the systemic venous systems helps to localize the site tory and metabolic components. Pulmonary arteriogra- pulmonary venous obstruction, clinical status is determined phy demonstrates the anomalous pulmonary venous pathway by the amount of pulmonary blood fow and the degree of during the levophase (which may be signifcantly delayed if pulmonary hypertension. The problem adequately, although one report has suggested that chest X-ray shows a normal heart size with generalized pul- maintenance of ductal patency with prostaglandin El may be useful. Two-dimensional echo- provide some increase in cardiac output by allowing a right cardiography is very reliable in establishing the diagnosis of to left shunt through the ductus. Nevertheless, if mixed venous satura- was an important advance in the preoperative management of tion increases as the cardiac index increases, it is possible this condition particularly because the osmotic load induced that there could be a net improvement in arterial saturation. The child should be 538 Comprehensive Surgical Management of Congenital Heart Disease, Second Edition treated temporarily with standard decongestive measures. Pulmonary resistance should be minimized by hyperventilation with Because there is no possibility of spontaneous resolution of 100% oxygen. If an timing of surgery should be determined by the presence or inotropic agent is required, isoproterenol may be helpful as absence of pulmonary venous obstruction. Because there is no effective means of medical palliation Metabolic acidosis should be treated aggressively. Occasionally, there is associated sepsis and renal fail- echocardiographic diagnosis. Digoxin is probably not useful, and it also lowers the as a preoperative intervention,21,22 as described above, if threshold for ventricular fbrillation. The chest is opened by a median time, early in infancy, before the deleterious pathologic sternotomy, and at least one lobe of the thymus, usually the changes in the heart and lungs and other organs secondary left, is excised. A patch of anterior pericardium is harvested to cyanosis and a long-standing volume load have a chance and treated with 0. It is to develop (see Chapter 12, Optimal Timing for Congenital essential that there be minimal disturbance of the myocardium Heart Surgery: The Importance of Early Primary Repair). Very slight retraction of the ventricular myocardium can result in ventricular fbrillation. An incision is made on the anterior surface of the anomalous descending vertical vein with care taken to avoid entering the individual pulmonary veins. The incision also should not be extended into the body ture will be approximately 15°C. This is probably a mmHg, although not lower than 25 mm which could impair wise maneuver if obstruction has been severe preoperatively cerebral perfusion. In the past, isoproterenol was useful as an and it is anticipated that the child will experience pulmonary inotropic agent in further lowering pulmonary resistance, but hypertensive crises in the early postoperative period. In the is rarely necessary today following the introduction of nitric average neonate, a fenestration of approximately 3 mm is oxide. If pulmonary artery pressure remains elevated, an otomy, the left heart is flled with saline, the venous cannula obstructed anastomosis should be suspected. Deep nized that because of pulmonary hypertension and in spite hypothermic circulatory arrest in the neonate and small infant of the slightly underdeveloped nature of the left heart, it is provides optimal exposure and, therefore, the most consis- usually the right heart that is the limiting factor in determin- tently wide open anastomosis. It may be preferable to directly cannulate When the alternative approach of everting the apex of the the large left innominate vein with a right angle cannula in heart from the chest is used, the pulmonary confuence to order to optimize exposure of the area of anastomosis. The cross-clamp is applied using this technique in the very small neonate with a very and cardioplegia is infused before retracting the heart out of narrow vertical vein, although it remains the technique of the chest to complete dissection of the left end of the horizon- choice in many centers. Their response to most leftward point, using a continuous inverting suture tech- cardiopulmonary bypass is often a substantial, although brief, nique and working toward the right within the anastomosis. A parallel longitudinal incision is made on the anterior surface of the horizontal pulmonary venous confuence. In the neonate, This technique allowed preservation of the tissue between this approach requires division of the aorta and on occasion 32 the coronary sinus and the foramen ovale, where it was the main pulmonary artery. It is important to note that the possibility of obstruction between the confuence of pulmonary veins and coronary sinus must be excluded by appropriate preoperative studies. If obstruction is present, an anastomosis between the horizontal confuence and left atrium is necessary. Survival estimated by Kaplan–Meier for anomalous veins moved from the right atrium to the left. Independent risk fac- tors for early mortality were preoperative pulmonary venous Failure to Wean from Cardiopulmonary Bypass obstruction (p = 0. Overall mortality was sig- sures required in the early period after weaning from bypass, nifcantly associated with preoperative pulmonary venous it may very occasionally be necessary to consider apply- obstruction (p = 0. Postrepair pulmonary vein stenosis cannulas as used for the intraoperative procedure can be occurred in 11 patients (8. The cannulas exit through the sternotomy incision use of nonabsorbable suture (p = 0. A silastic patch is sutured to the skin In a similar report from the Bambino Gesu Hospital in Rome, Michielon et al. A total of 32% of patients underwent emergency surgery Intensive Care Management because of pulmonary venous obstruction. Overall, early The heavily muscularized pulmonary arterioles of the child mortality was 8%. Freedom from reintervention for pulmo- pulmonary resistance should be minimized by appropriate nary venous obstruction for operative survivors was 87% at ventilator management. The presence of preoperative obstruction predicted vasoconstriction should be minimized by maintaining a a higher risk of reintervention for pulmonary vein stenosis constant state of anesthesia. Pulmonary venous connection was supracar- achieve a pulmonary pressure (as measured by the indwell- ing pulmonary artery line) that is less than two thirds of sys- diac in 44%, infracardiac in 26%, cardiac in 21%, and mixed temic pressure. Overall survival from repair was 65 ± 6% 24–48 hours of hemodynamic stability, the level of anesthe- at 14 years, with a current survival of 97%. These are particularly likely to occur in diac connection type, earlier operation year, younger age at response to the stress of endotracheal tube suctioning, which repair, use of epinephrine postoperatively, and postoperative should be performed carefully by a team of two nurses or a pulmonary venous obstruction. Freedom from reoperation nurse and a respiratory therapist after hyperventilation. Thoracoscopic repair has also been reported, but is 20 had infracardiac connection.