By Z. Randall. San Joaquin College of Law.
Likewise buy generic levitra professional on line erectile dysfunction doctors in memphis tn, religious influences on the uptake of particular health services or health interventions may impact consistently on communities of that faith in whichever European country they live buy 20mg levitra professional with amex erectile dysfunction shake ingredients, and therefore purchase discount levitra professional impotence and diabetes 2, evidence gathered in one jurisdiction might usefully inform development and practice in other jurisdictions. The current status of health communication campaign evaluation demonstrates the need for capacity building within and across European countries. Such capacity building can be enhanced and/or promoted through the identification of the skills and knowledge of researchers and health professionals who have worked in this area. Encouraging and facilitating open dialogue to exploit the lessons that may have been learned but not documented may also contribute to capacity. More extensive and detailed publication of process and impact evaluations would usefully contribute to the ongoing development of policy and practice . The consultations identified a desire among the stakeholders for the development of a more reciprocal relationship between those working in the area of health communication and transnational agencies. Workforce The availability of qualified human resources with sufficient skills and knowledge and the availability of training options. The challenges and opportunities offered by the diversity of the workforce involved in health communication for communicable diseases in Europe were highlighted earlier. Health communication competencies may be defined as the combination of the essential knowledge, abilities, skills and values necessary for the practice of health communication (adapted from ). Overall, stakeholders considered that education and training for health communication in the prevention and control of communicable diseases is currently underdeveloped across Member States [1-3]. It is important that, in consultation with Member States, research is conducted to establish the core competencies required for health communication so as to clarify the focus of the education and training provision. A number of key skills deficits were identified in the stakeholders consultations. One was around evaluation research, which was perceived to require specific skills and resources. The types of evaluation reported in the data collection suggest that participants are at least familiar with outcome, impact and cost- effectiveness evaluations. A second area of concern to the stakeholders was in the use of media in general, and specifically new media and new technologies. Because of the variability between countries in their capacity to develop and effectively use health communication activities, any strategic development at a European level must be cognisant of this discrepancy in capacity and experience. Effective guidelines and tools to support health communication in a consistent way will be of significant value. During the consultation, the stakeholders identified a number of specific training needs, including in the area of social media, evaluation, and public relations in order to be prepared to deal with the media, particularly in crisis situations. A particular challenge of social media was identified as its speed, requiring health communicators to respond immediately to issues in order to pre-empt the dissemination of misinformation and also to react immediately to counter any misinformation that has already been disseminated . In the absence of relevant training or education courses, such courses might usefully be developed. The range of communicable diseases was, in itself, seen as a challenge to professionals working in the area of health communication; particularly emerging diseases that are new to Europe, such as West Nile virus and chikungunya fever. A database of resources developed during the Translating Health Communication Project may represent a first step towards the establishment of a research and knowledge infrastructure that can support professionals. The database records link to over 600 resources for communicable disease topic areas with information about the target audience of the resource, the organisation that developed the resource, the language of the resource, and the date it was developed. It also includes a further category which logs a diverse range of 49 health communication and information portals and websites. This database, while not designed to constitute an exhaustive list, nor act as a compendium of best practice examples, aims to facilitate improved sharing of online health communication resources and materials between European countries and regions. A wide range of expertise is evident among identified stakeholders working towards the prevention and control of communicable diseases . Health communication is often one part of the overall remit of such experts, particularly in countries with smaller populations. Stakeholders identified that structured health communication training was required and suggested that European-level organisations should coordinate and facilitate such training. A scoping study of education and training courses that currently exist would prove a useful preliminary to this endeavour. Collaboration with the higher education sector could advance the development and uptake of education and training opportunities including continuing professional development. A wide variety of professionals are involved, to varying extents, in health communication, but there is a lack of clarity and little consistency about where the responsibility for health communication lies in individual countries. At present, the organisational structures do not support high levels of strategic planning or collaboration. Stakeholders suggested that the focus of health communication was on crisis rather than planned communication. However, it is also clear that the key stakeholders, as represented in the consultation phases of this project, are committed to the development of health communication for communicable diseases. They identified the need for a coherent and coordinated approach to build on the expertise, knowledge and evidence that currently exists to enhance health communication to improve health and reduce health inequalities. Stakeholders also identified the need for a shift from a top-down approach to a more participatory, citizen-centred way of working. The utilisation of new digital media, such as social media, to deliver timely and relevant health messages and to dialogue with citizens was also widely recognised as an emerging opportunity. Some of it pertains to health communication for communicable diseases but much relates to non-communicable diseases. This evidence represents a resource that can be mined to establish its relevance and transferability to health communication for communicable diseases in the European context. Likewise, there are a significant number of guidelines and toolkits that have been developed and used in other contexts that could be adapted for use alongside the relatively limited number of resources relating to communicable diseases in Europe. In the European context, research activity for health communication in communicable diseases is in a nascent stage of development. The lack of systematic evaluation of health communication for communicable diseases has resulted in a limited evidence base which could give rise to inefficient use of resources. Stakeholders should encourage, and be encouraged to, evaluate interventions and to coordinate their research so as to construct a useful European knowledge base. A coordinated approach to research at a European level would result in greater collaboration across countries and the development of a more robust evidence base. The potential for capacity building for health communication in communicable diseases in Europe is manifest. This will involve the development of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems and leadership at all relevant levels, including the advancement of health communication knowledge and skills among practitioners; the expansion of support and infrastructure in organisations at a country and pan-European level; and the development of greater collaboration and partnerships for health communication research, practice and policy in the European region . Stakeholders identified their own need for further education and training in health communication, and a first step in the provision of this would be the development of a database of existing courses. Particular attention should be paid to all the issues surrounding the use of technology and new media, not least to ensure that it does not have the effect of widening health inequalities. Likewise, the development and maintenance of an online platform for disseminating relevant resources and materials would support the advancement of a quality strategy for the promotion of health communication for communicable diseases. Digital communications – a dynamic, interactive, continually evolving medium – have become an established source of health information for both consumers and health professionals. It would appear to provide the ideal medium for the provision of information about the prevention and control of communicable diseases.
The products of yet more phage culmination of a multi-step process known as genes contribute cheap levitra professional 20mg with visa erectile dysfunction doctor in atlanta, at the end of what is known adsorption discount levitra professional online age related erectile dysfunction causes. It then proceeds through the as the phage latent period order levitra professional cheap impotence heart disease, to the destruction translocation of phage nucleic acid into the of the bacterial cell envelope so that phage cell – variously described as both ejection and progeny can leak into the extracellular injection, as well as uptake – but begins in environment. For tailed phages, this lysis earnest only once the phage genome has process involves coordinated action by at made its way into the bacterial cytoplasm. In particular, the depending on the characteristics of the phage, holin protein is responsible for controlling the bacterium and circumstances. At its most the timing of host lysis, stimulating the action basic level, the phage may either live or die of the lysin, and, as a by-product, shuting (that is, produce or not produce replicative down infection and therefore host meta- products afer infecting a host cell), and the bolism. Lysogeny In an abortive infection, both the infecting phage and infected bacterium die. In a lytic The other major state that involves both infection, the infecting phage lives, producing successful phage infection and bacterial phage virions, while the infected bacterium survival is known as the lysogenic cycle, a both dies and is lysed. Abedon serves to unite the chapters found in Part I of Themperate – description of a phage that is this volume. All phages that can display capable of displaying a lysogenic cycle; all lysogeny are described as temperate, and the temperate phages and indeed all phages majority of temperate phages are tailed also display productive cycles at some (although a small number are instead point in their life cycles. Lysogenic cycles are characterized by Lytic – description of a phage that lyses its two features. First, the phage genome, now host in the course of productive infection; called a prophage, is replicated suﬃciently note that most temperate as well as most rapidly within infected bacteria that daughter non-temperate phages are lytic phages. Secondly, the not lyse its host in the course of produc- infections are not productive, that is, no tive infection; these phages are released by virions are produced. Integration is typically accomplished tional phage that is not capable of display- by the action of a phage protein termed an ing either lysogenic or chronic infections. Integrases generally bind to a Professionally lytic – description of a phage speciﬁc site on the bacterial genome and a that is both obligately lytic and not recently corresponding, partially homologous site in descended from temperate phages. The result is site-speciﬁc Virulent – a common synonym of obli- recombination to integrate the phage genome gately lytic, although it can also describe into the bacterial genome. In some lysogens, the Phage titre (or just titre) – a measure of the prophage only expresses genes whose pro- number of phages per millilitre in a liquid teins are needed to prevent induction or, stock, and typically a measure of viable instead, trigger induction upon receiving an phages as determined via plaque counts appropriate signal. Expression of the re- rather than of virion particles as deter- pressor proteins in particular prevents such mined by various forms of microscopy. Other prophages inhibition of bacterial growth such as can also express genes that can alter the phenotype be mediated by phages. Note that the Common terms ﬁlamentous coliphage M13 is a prominent chronically infecting phage. To avoid ambiguity when considering and Siegel (Chapters 7 and 8, this volume) for diﬀerent types of phage infection, I provide discussion of the utility especially of this explicit deﬁnitions of the following terms: phage to biotechnology and also Goodridge Phages 5 and Steiner (Chapter 11, this volume) gration of bacterial genes into phage genomes. Morons are typically considered to be bacterial genes that have Transduction become incorporated into phage genomes via processes of illegitimate recombination and Although covered in greater detail by Kuhl et which do not encode a mechanism for their al. Included under this heading are a phages are identiﬁed within an environment, number of virulence factor genes. Generally, we can into the phage’s genetic structure, with diﬀerentiate phage-mediated horizontal gene morons more evidently newly acquired by transfer into four categories: generalized the transferring phage. This diversity is seen in thousands of base pairs, such as those terms of genotype, phenotype, the proteins associated with bacterial pathogenicity produced and interactions with hosts. Specialized transduction, by con- (which bacteria they infect), their trans- trast and as narrowly deﬁned, is the in- ducing ability, their virion morphology, and corporation of bacterial genes that are found also with respect to their general infection adjacent to prophage integration sites into the characteristics. Typically, only made of a speciﬁc phage, it should be kept in relatively few genes are transferred. As phage mind that substantial eﬀort may be necessary genomes tend to be limited in their size by to elucidate the speciﬁc properties, especially constraints on their packaging into phage phenotypic, that are associated with that capsids (heads), this transduction of even phage or phage–host combination. On the relatively few bacterial genes can result in other hand, various generalizations may impairment of phage functioning. This monograph will present a of specialized transduction is by deﬁnition mix of both generalizations and speciﬁcs in limited to temperate phages that integrate considering phage presence in bodies their genomes into the host chromosome in without disease, their role in both bacterial the course of infection. Letarov1 1Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences Human beings, our problems, our triumphs even close to accurate, as each macroscopic and our everyday lives, have through the organism hosts many types of microorganisms ages been central to philosophy, literature, as part of its normal state: the microbiome of arts and religion. These include, for example, not even be on all of the microbiome but resistance to acceptation of the heliocentric instead on the viruses that infect most of model of the Universe (16th century), the those non-human cells, the bacteriophages or diﬃculties that the theory of evolution met phages. Indeed, in this monograph the perception by many modern biologists, numerous roles that phages can play – in whose work is not directly aimed at species- healthy humans, in contributing to human speciﬁc aspects of animal biology, to regard at disease (see Kuhl et al. Abedon) Bacteriophages as a Part of the Human Microbiome 7 Chapters 7, 10, 11 and 16; see also Williams individuals over time (Costello et al. First, and the emphasis of the other hand, communities of gut bacteria this chapter, will be the normal state of aﬀairs, were much more related in closely connected which is the phage contribution to the people such as monozygotic twins and their collection of cells and microorganisms that mothers, although this consistency applies together make up the human body; that is, less so to the phage component, which ourselves and our microbiome, especially as appears to be highly individual but none the seen during the normal, healthy state. These data highlight the eﬀect of ampliﬁ- cation of slight diﬀerences in physiology (or Phages and the Human Microbiome: conditions) by the complex events of micro- an Overview bial interactions as well as exposure history, resulting in signiﬁcantly diﬀerent states of From the point of view of the microorganism, microbial systems in diﬀerent subjects, and the human or animal body is merely a system indicate that phage communities may be of connected colonizable ecotopes, that is, more sensitive to colonization history than ecologically distinct features of environments. The data on the (the colon versus the lung, for example), in phage prevalence and activity in diﬀerent terms of its history (dictating in part what sites of the human body, analysed in this organisms can be present), in terms of chapter, thus may not represent any para- interactions between the microorganisms digmal model for phages in animal-associated that are there and as a consequence of feed- systems but could instead reﬂect particular back mechanisms between microorganisms features of our species, and maybe even of and host. The result is a high potential for individuals or subpopulations included in variation in microorganism types, including the studies cited. By comparison, we can con- virus types, going from organ to organ, tissue sider the current understanding of bac- to tissue, individual to individual, and also teriophage ecology in other animal-associated over time both within individuals and systems, as recently reviewed elsewhere through the generations (both humans and (Letarov and Kulikov, 2009). Adding further to these Despite early work with phages where complications is the potential for at least there was a strong emphasis on the impact of some microorganisms to move between phages on the human antibacterial immunity, species. For phages, we can also add an along with a strong medical orientation of ability to modify their bacterial hosts (see basic research in microbiology and virology Christie et al. The ﬁrst potential for a high degree of individual observations of human-associated bacterio- variation in the composition of, for example, phages, however, were published by one of intestinal bacterial populations in humans, as the discoverers of these viruses, Felix was reported by Costello et al. The d’Hérelle, who demonstrated phages lysing individuality of the associated phage enterobacteria in faeces (d’Hérelle, 1921). Consistently, divergence of both to 1930s and from the 1990s until now bacterial and phage communities at the same (Abedon, 2011) these ‘endogenous’ phages body sites but in diﬀerent individuals were have been subject to systemic research only found to be higher than in the same over the past few years. Letarov of bacteriophage impact on microbial ecology systems (waste-water drains, for example). In and on macro-host homeostasis in humans numerous cases, it has been diﬃcult to isolate (and, more widely, in animals) is highly phages directly from animals, but they are mosaic, with many important parts of this easily found in farm waste water. As has been evident since associated or ‘downstream’ habitats are not early electron-microscopy based studies of yet clear. The diversity of bacteria on the diversity of both viral communities was at the skin is comparable to that of the gut, although level of about 175 viral genotypes in both the total microbial biomass is much lower. These data on skin-associated bacteriophages, phages were proposed to play signiﬁcant however, is almost non-existent for humans, roles in the pathological microbial ecology in as well as for other animals.
Science Five-year survival predictive factors in patients with excessive alcohol 1982;217:169-175 order 20 mg levitra professional mastercard erectile dysfunction massage techniques. Studies in alcoholic liver Administration Cooperative Study Group on Alcoholic Hepatitis purchase levitra professional 20 mg erectile dysfunction proton pump inhibitors. Duration of survival in patients with Laennec’s duced hepatitis treated with steroids or enteral nutrition: a multicenter cirrhosis order levitra professional 20mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction epocrates. Plauth M, Cabre E, Riggio O, Assis-Camilo M, Pirlich M, Kondrup J, et quantitative evaluation and optimal timing. Orthotopic liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease: a retrospective 201. Treatment analysis of survival, recidivism, and risk factors predisposing to recidi- of alcoholic hepatitis. Predictive factors of alcohol relapse after orthotopic liver Med 1990;113:299-307. The role of the tis–a Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group systematic review with meta-anal- discriminant factor in the assessment and treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. Severe alcoholic hepatitis with extremely high neutrophil count hepatitis–a randomised clinical trial. Long-term oral branched-chain amino acid treatment in chronic he- calorie malnutrition to alcoholic liver disease: a reexamination of data paticencephalopathy. Controlled trial on nutrition supplementation in outpatients with symp- TheLillemodel:anewtoolfortherapeuticstrategyinpatientswithsevere tomatic alcoholic cirrhosis. Am J Clin fylline improves short-term survival in severe acute alcoholic hepatitis: a Nutr 1982;35:56-72. Recent Dev Alcohol 1984;2:135- randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of Et- 141. S-adenosyl-L-methionine: its role in the treatment of liver Early switch to pentoxifylline in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis is disorders. A randomized, controlled trial of treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with 1999;30:1081-1089. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver dis- and impact of disease recurrence. Colchicine treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis: a randomized, placebo- rent management and outcomes. Adiponectin, a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens, ural history and evaluation of prednisolone therapy. Ann Intern Med negatively regulates the growth of myelomonocytic progenitors and the 1971;74:311-321. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cir- With a note on published results in encephalopathic patients. Double-blind and/orhepatitisBorCliverdiseases–asystematiccochranehepato-biliary controlled trial of prednisolone therapy in patients with severe acute group review with meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Liver transplantation alcohol related liver disease: (deliber- ately) stirring a hornet’s nest! Short-term and long-term survival in patients with alco- Minimal criteria for placement of adults on the liver transplant waiting holic hepatitis treated with oxandrolone and prednisolone. N Engl J Med list: a report of a national conference organized by the American Society 1984;311:1464-1470. Infected cat- best approach to prevention is sur- develop on the feet and teats of ani- tle are depressed, reluctant to move, veillance. It is spread not able to eat which can lead to a Becoming aware of the signs of the by direct contact with infected ani- decrease in milk production. They disease (sores in the mouth, on the mals, through the air, and on con- also drool, and in many cases, make feet, teats) and the conditions result- taminated objects. It can also be spread when healthy animals eat (oral) from a feed trough where an infected animal has eaten or drooled saliva. Strict biosecurity practices can help you - Stay off this farm unless given permission to enter. Use strict biosecurity measures for animals, ani- - All visitors should be accompanied by some- mal products, vehicles, people and equipment. Restrict or stop all animal movement to pre- - Accurate record keeping of traffc on your vent entry or spread of the disease. This Employees will minimize the chance of the disease being introduced onto your farm. Vehicles - Change gloves, clothes, hats and wash and disinfect boots between farms. Wildlife and Other Animals (See Appendix E) Animals • Prevent contact with free roam- ing animals (wildlife, cats, dogs). Bovine Alliance on Management and Nutri- • Visitors must remove and leave be- tion. Handling foreign animal diseases hind protective outer clothing and foot- in cattle. Accessed on • Anyone allowed in animal areas should be re- July 06, 2005 at http://www. Product Dilution Mixing Instructions Comments Sodium hypochlorite 3% 2 gallons of bleach Not effective when area/objects 5. National Emergency Response to a Highly Contagious Animal Disease, Executive Summary. Y N Do you use strict biosecurity measures for animals, animal products, vehicles, people and equipment on your farm? Y N Do you have only one gated entrance to the animal areas on your farm to better control and monitor visitors and vehicles? Y N Have you posted signs at the farm entrance to inform visitors to stay of your farm unless absolutely necessary? Y N Have you posted a visitor biosecurity sign that clearly lists specifc measures to follow when on your farm? Animals- Livestock Y N Have you provided as much distance as possible between your animals and those of your neighbors (e. Y N Do you provide supplemental water and fence of streams or rivers to prevent your animals from drinking from them? Y N Have you educated yourself about foot-and-mouth disease and the signs of infection? Y N Do you use separate facilities, equipment, and staf to handle isolated livestock? Y N Do you prevent your vehicles or trailers from coming in contact with any other livestock that are not from your operation? Y N Do you require that any animals that have recently been acquired or have returned to the farm be quarantined for a minimum of 21 days?
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Asphyxiant poisons – carbon monoxide generic levitra professional 20mg erectile dysfunction pills that work, buy 20mg levitra professional fast facts erectile dysfunction, carbon dioxide discount generic levitra professional canada erectile dysfunction questions to ask, hydrogen sulphide, phosgene and phosphine. Names of common adulterants and general methods of detection for food adulterants, Common food poisonings- Botulism, Chemical Poisoning, Poisonous Mushrooms and epidemic dropsy. Description of toxic pollution of environment, its medico-legal aspects & toxic hazards of occupation and industry. General principles of analytical toxicology and its application in management , prevention and control Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 33 of poisoning. Basic principles of functioning of Gas Liquid Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Spectrophotometer, Neutron Activation Analysis, Mass spectrometry, alcometer. Preparation of a Medico-legal report of an injured person due to mechanical violence. Conduct & prepare postmortem examination report in a case of suspected poisoning and to preserve & dispatch viscera for chemical analysis. Conduct & prepare postmortem report in a case of death due to violence of any nature - road accident, fall from height, assault, factory accident, electrocution, burns & accident due to any other cause, fire arm injury, asphyxia, natural death & medical negligence. Demonstration, interpretation and medico-legal aspects from examination of hair (human &animal)fibre, semen & other biological fluids. Demonstration & identification of a particular stain is a blood and identification of its species origin. Identification & drawing medico-legal inference from various specimen of injuries e. Identification & description of weapons of of medicolegal importance commonly used e. Description of the contents and structure of bullet & cartridges used & medico-legal interpretation drawn. Examination & preparation of report of an alleged accused in a rape/unnatural sexual offence. Examination & preparation medico-legal report of a victim of sexual offence/unnatural sexual offence. Dhatura, castor, cannabis, opium, aconite copper sulphate, pesticides compounds, marking nut, oleander, Nux vomica, abrus seeds, snakes, capsium, calotropis, lead compounds & tobacco. Apurba Nandy- Principles of Forensic Medicine, 3rd Edition 2000, New Central Book Agency (P) ltd. Total Theory Practical 75 38 37 Theory paper consists of two parts - a) Forensic Medicine 19 marks b) Toxicology 19 marks Both above two papers have to be answered on separate sheets. Introduction to Bacteriology – The nature of bacteria – Morphological differences – Growth requirement – Nomenclature and classification – Enumeration of bacteria responsible for certain primary diseases. Bacterial Staining and Cultivation – Microscopy : types and principles – Staining : principles – Media for growth / bacterial colony – Familiarization with materials used 4. Introduction to parasitology – Biology of protozoa – Protozoan parasites causing human infection – Medically important helminths – Ectoparasites 6. Introduction to Mycology – Nature of fungi : basic structures and classification – Superficial mycoses – Subcutaneous mycosis – Systemic fungal infections with opportunistic mycosis 9. Collection of Transport of Samples – Collection of clinical samples – Transport of various appropriate clinical samples. Host-Parasite relationship – Presence of normal flora – Enumeration and explanation of various host-parasite interaction – Mechanism of pathogenesis adhesion/ colonisation/ virulence and toxigenicity – Host response – Koch’s postulates 12. Immunity to infection – Normal immune system – Innate Immunity – Antigens – presentation and association in immunity – Immunoglobulins and their role in immunity – Cell mediated immunity and their role – Hypersensitivity – Immunodeficiency – Tolerance 14. Immunodiagnosis – Antigen-antibody reactions in infectious diseases and diagnostic tests based on these 15. Microscopy and micrometry – Introduction to microscopes – Focussing slides under low/ high power and oil immersion – Principles and demonstration of various types of microscopes 2. Direct demonstration of bacteria by staining – Gram staining – Albert’s staining – Acid fast staining 3. Motility tests and biochemical tests for bacterial identification – Hanging drop method for motility testing – Important biochemical tests : principles and interpretation 4. Intestinal nematodes (Clinical features and lab diagnosis) (Micro, Gastro) Intestinal cestodes (Focus: only those seen in india; and trematodes incl. Intestinal cestodes (Epidemiology, clinical features, (Micro, Gastro, Neuro) microbiological aspects, diagnosis) 4. Enterobacteriaceae (Introduction, common features, classification, infections caused - enumeration only) 5. Cholera (Clinical Features, Epidemiology, (Micro, Med, lab diagnosis, vaccines) Paeds, Comm. Streptococcal infections (Group A, B, B: bacteriology, pathogenesis, infections, lab diagnosis), and, introduction to viridans group and pneumococcus 18. Diphtheria, whooping cough and acute viral respiratory infections of childhood 21. Urinary tract infections (Micro, Paeds, Med) Wound infections/anaerobic infections/fungal infections 27. Staphylococcal infections - including bacteriology, pathogenesis and lab diagnosis 28. Stool examination for intestinal nematodes and cestodes — Collection/transport and concentration of sample — Identification of ova of intestinal nematodes and cestodes — Identification of adult worms and larvae 2. Enterobacteriaceae — Common media and biochemical tests — Culture characteristics of members of Enterobacteriaceae 3. Laboratory diagnosis of cholera — Collection and transport of specimen — Culture media and characteristics — Identification (incl. Laboratory diagnosis of food poisoning — Focus on: laboratory diagnosis of salmonellosis — Demonstration for Clostridium perfringens and others 6. Laboratory diagnosis of filariasis — direct examination/staining for microfilaria — demonstration of other aspects of filariasis - including vector — include revision of stool examination for helminthic ova — include demonstration of hydatid cyst 7. Laboratory diagnosis of upper respiratory infections — Focus on: laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus infection — Albert’s stain — Media, identification and toxin of Corynebacterium (demonstration) 8. Laboratory diagnosis of wound infections — Focus on: Staphylococcus (culture/ identification including tests like catalase and coagulase) 12. Rickettsial infection with special reference to Indian rickettsial infection (Indian tick typhus, murine typhus, endemic typhus, scrub typhus 7. Human Immunodeficiency virus (Micro, Med, Paeds, Comm Med) Congenital infections 22. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria — Preparation, staining and examination of peripheral blood smear for malarial parasite — Identification of various species and stages — Thick smear — Demonstration of vector and newer methods 2. Laboratory diagnosis of enteric fever — Sample collection methods and transport — Blood culture (in detail) — Stool and urine culture for Salmonella — Widal test — Identification tests and slide agglutination for Salmonella 4. Practical: Practical examination include spotting, different bacterial staining procedures, identification of bacterial strains using conventional methods.