By M. Silas. Brigham Young University Hawaii.
Carson is perhaps best known for her publication entitled Silent Spring buy 100mg kamagra chewable free shipping erectile dysfunction specialists, which has been Grace Abbott (18781939) played a key role in rais- called one of the most influential books ever written on ing public awareness about the plight of immigrants to 44 Women Advocates order generic kamagra chewable pills injections for erectile dysfunction treatment, Reformers buy kamagra chewable line erectile dysfunction icd 9 code 2012, and Pioneers the United States with her book entitled The Immigrant oppression that they suffered as a result of unwanted and the Community (1917). Sanger argued that no woman can call work with poverty-stricken immigrants living in the slums herself free who does not own and control her own of Chicago and her study of the conditions on Ellis Island, body. She testified riences there impressed upon her the need for birth before Congress against immigration restrictions and, in a control as a mechanism of womens sexual liberation. After distributing contra- work on behalf of immigrants, Abbott is known for her ceptives to approximately 400 women, she was arrested work in support of child labor laws and her role in plan- and ultimately served time in prison for distributing ning the social security system as a member of the then- contraceptives. The following year, she began publica- President Franklin Delano Roosevelts Council on tion of the Birth Control Review and, in 1921, she estab- Economic Security. Seaman pre- diaphragms would cause cancer and madness and that tended to be mentally ill in order to observe and record interference with Gods will would lead to mental and the conditions at that hospital. Finally, in 1937 the American Medical expos in New York World; these articles were later Association recognized the provision of contraception collected and published as Ten Days in a Mad House as a legitimate medical service. Her work precipitated a grand jury investigation eral Comstock Law was overturned in 1938, many states of the conditions in that asylum. It was not until 1965, with the known for her effort to beat Phileas Foggs 80-day tour Supreme Court decision in Griswold v. Connecticut, around the world in Jules Vernes fictional account, that women were assured of their right to privacy that Around the World in Eighty Days. In pioneer of the surgical technique that is used to save 1912, Sanger began writing a column entitled What blue babies. In 1930, she became the Head of nalized the publication, distribution, or possession of the Johns Hopkins pediatric heart clinic. She became information about devices or medications for abortion or interested in studying the condition popularly known as contraception. Family planning, she believed, prevent the babys heart from pumping oxygen into would liberate poor women from the economic the blood. This mechanism is known as the which led them to claim their superiority in other areas BlalockTaussig shunt. Horney argued that environmental and social paving the way for open-heart surgery with the conditions, rather than instinctual or biological drives, heartlung machine. In 1962, Taussig worked to alert as maintained by Freud, determined individual person- physicians about the dangers associated with the use of ality. She objected to Freuds concept of libido, a death thalidomide, prescribed as a sedative during pregnancy. She further asserted that the source of Alice Hamilton (18691970) has become known as much of womens psychological distress was due to a the matriarch of industrial medicine. Her 1910 study of the poisoning New York Psychoanalytic Institute, and, together with of approximately 600 workers implicated seven different Erich Fromm, founded the American Journal of industrial processes as the cause. Harriet Hardy was largely responsible for the Reproductive Health identification of beryllium as the cause of an outbreak Bertha Van Hoosen (18631952), while on staff of of sarcoidosis of the lung among predominantly female Illinois Universitys Medical School, invented what has employees at a fluorescent light plant in Massachusetts. Van exposures were responsible for the outbreak, their find- Hoosen delivered over 2,000 babies using this tech- ings were suppressed as a result of industry pressure. Health and Spirituality Mary Baker Eddy (18211910) is best known as a Pediatrics founder of Christian Science. Although this represents Ethel Collins Dunham (18831969) set the standard a religious or spiritual orientation, its tenets are inti- of care for the treatment of premature infants. Eddys first turn of the 20th century, some cities were experiencing edition of Science and Health, which addressed the a 30% mortality rate among infants under the age of concept of mind healing, was published in 1875. White (18271915) cofounded the Seventh the association between prematurity and infant death. Day Adventist Church, together with her husband Her text, entitled Premature Infants: A Manual for James White, in 1863. During the early 1900s, the United States had one of the highest infant and maternal death rates in the Health Care Western world. In 1908, Baker was appointed to head During the early to mid-1900s, South Carolina was the Bureau of Child Hygiene within New Yorks known for its lack of attention to the health problems Department of Health; this was the first tax-supported plaguing its African American residents. As a public attention was paid to diseases that disproportionately health administrator, Baker worked ceaselessly to affected the African American populace, it was often decrease the rate of infant mortality. Ultimately, Bakers she began a clinic for expectant mothers, infants, and efforts led to a reduction in the rate of child mortality children. American businessmen and, eventually, state and local Evangeline Cory Booth (18651950) was the governments. In 1904, Immigrant Health Evangeline Booth assumed the leadership of the Salvation Army in the United States. Her social reform efforts included the founding of the settlement house, Hull House, to serve Chicagos poor immigrant population. Substance Use and Pediatrics Unlike many of her predecessors, Addams believed that poverty resulted from social dynamics rather than Clara Hale (19051992), a social worker, was the from personal defects. Hull House offered numerous founder of Hale House, the first official home for babies services including day care, vocational training, citi- who were born addicted to drugs. Hale began babysit- zenship and literacy classes, child and medical care, ting in her home during the 1930s and first became music and art classes, and leisure activities. She is credited with having of Hull House were instrumental in the passage of state raised 40 foster children. Hale first took care of a drug- child labor laws, compulsory education laws, and addicted baby in 1969. In 1975, Hale House became the the establishment of the first juvenile court in the Center for the Promotion of Human Potential, which United States. Her advocacy of labor unions and her stance as a pacifist during World War I led to her Women in the Health Professions loss of support and her identification on a traitor list of the Senate Judiciary Committee. However, in 1931, Florence Nightingale (18201910) is known as the Addams became the first woman to receive the Nobel founder of modern nursing. Nightingale supervised a Peace Prize and, to this day, remains the only social unit of field nurses in British army hospitals during the worker to have ever been awarded that honor. Crimean War, with an emphasis on hygiene and the 47 Women Advocates, Reformers, and Pioneers need for prompt attention. Few received any financial ing school for nurses, which became the model for remuneration for their efforts. Still others, such as Jane physician in the United States, lived during the same Addams and Lucy Parsons, were condemned for their period of time as Nightingale and considered work when it became politically undesirable. Blackwell was denied admission to Carol Gilligan has maintained that the process every medical school in New York and Philadelphia of moral development in women differs from that because of her sex. Her research findings indicate that, while York voted to admit Blackwell, believing that the com- men may emphasize fairness and rules in the resolution pletion of the application by a woman was a prank.
The broiler pens occupied of the house while adult purchase generic kamagra chewable line medicare approved erectile dysfunction pump, mixed breed layers occupied buy kamagra chewable online pills impotence stress. There We are continuing to follow the flock through was no air separation and only a half wall separating both farm visits and laboratory examination purchase 100 mg kamagra chewable circumcision causes erectile dysfunction. Although the pens originally Although mortality in the broilers and layers has had contained same age broilers within each pen, it was some improvement, the owner is continuing to see difficult to determine the age parity due to extreme total mortality in the broilers approaching 40%. The lack of uniformity of the birds, and the ability of the resistance to depopulation, cleaning, disinfection and birds to jump the barriers into other pens. One pen single age broiler restocking has made it difficult to had recently contained growing turkeys and turkey find ways to improve the health of the birds. Heavy plastic seven of 37 broiler chicks less than 12 days of age sheeting was then placed over the entire floor surface housed together in one room of a research institute. The floor was bedded an additional seven of 10 birds examined at 14 days with about two inches of a soft cellulose substrate of age. A chick starter and housing conditions were identical in both rooms, ration containing amprolium (Co-op Feeds, and no experimental procedures had been performed Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) was provided in plastic on any of the birds. A larger than expected number of mortalities On day four, one chick was found dead in Room was experienced in five to 12-day-old broiler chicks A and was diagnosed with sudden death syndrome on housed at a research institute. An adjacent room diagnosis of intestinal accident was made and no housing chicks of the same age and from the same further diagnostic tests were performed. A cursory gross examination identical in both rooms, and no experimental revealed the presence of food in the crops and procedures had yet been performed on any of the gizzards and no obvious lesions to explain the cause birds. Seventy-four Ross broiler chicks were picked One chick found dead in Room A was discarded up from a local hatchery on day of hatch (Day 0) for before it could be examined. Routine treatment at the Four more chicks were found dead acutely in hatchery included in ovo vaccination for Mareks and Room B the next day. One was diagnosed with infectious bursal disease, and spray vaccination for sudden death syndrome, and the other three had infectious bronchitis virus at hatch. One chick had white plaques with examined, neck tagged, and divided between two depressed centers visible through the serosa biocontainment rooms (Rooms A and B) in a throughout the small intestine, and fibrino-necrotic th 273 65 Western Poultry Disease Conference 2016 debris was found associated with these areas. The lesions were seen in any of the gizzards and intestines second chick had a walled-off area of peritonitis examined at the end of the trial (14 birds at 18 days surrounding an obvious intestinal rupture, and of age and 21 birds at 28 days). Necrotic enteritis primarily affects two to On day 11, one more chick was found dead in six week-old broiler chickens raised on litter although Room B. Food was present in the gizzard, however outbreaks in older birds have also been reported (1, there were urate crystals in the ureters indicating 2). The intestinal mucosa from the which is a normal inhabitant of the intestines of jejunum to the cecae was coated with a fibrino- healthy chickens (1). Microscopic Predisposing factors are thought to include a drastic examination of tissues from all three chicks showed change in intestinal microflora, high dietary levels of lesions of extensive coagulation necrosis of the villi fishmeal or grains, or any condition that results in which were lined by rod shaped bacterial. Larger damage to the intestinal mucosa, such as coccidiosis numbers of short rod bacteria were also present in the or mycotoxicosis (1, 2, 3). Colonization of the intestinal epithelium by Eimeria On day 12, two more birds were found dead in spp. No further testing was feed particle size, nutritional deficiencies, adenoviral done on these two birds. One additional runted bird infections, and toxic substances such as mycotoxins was euthanized. Gizzard On day 14 a decision was made to euthanize the erosions have also been associated with high numbers remaining 24 birds in Room B since we could not be of C. In a case dating back to confident they would be useful for the intended 1981, an increased frequency of gizzard erosions research. The remaining 10 birds were sent to a perfringens isolated from the koilin layer of the diagnostic laboratory for complete post mortem gizzard. In No other significant gross abnormalities were retrospect, the cecal intussusception that occurred in observed. A summary of post mortem findings is the five-day-old chick may have been related to the presented in Table 1. Overview of necrotic enteritis rinsing of feed or water containers, or exposure to in poultry. Rethinking our understanding of feed and more extensive contamination may have the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in chickens. Gizzard erosions as a cause of mortality in white Despite this, it is important to remember to perform a leghorn chickens. Dupont Material Safety Data Sheet Virkon systems even in young chicks, so lesions are not S. Days of Age Lesions Seen in Room A Lesions Seen in Room B 4 sudden death syndrome 5 cecae intussuscepted into rectum 6 unknown - not fully examined 7 unknown - not fully examined 8 did not examine necrotic enteritis 9 necrotic enteritis 10 necrotic enteritis (2); intestinal perforation (1); sudden death syndrome (1) 11 necrotic enteritis 12 colibaccillosis (2); runt (1) 14 gizzard erosions/ulcers (7) Summary Sudden Death Syndrome 1/37 Gizzard Erosion 7/37 Unknown 1/37 Necrotic Enteritis 5/37 No Apparent Lesions 35/37 Intestinal Accident 2/37 Unknown 2/37 Colibacillosis 2/37 Sudden Death Syndrome 1/37 Runt 1/37 No Apparent Lesions 17/37 (gizzard not examined in 14 of these birds) Table 2. Mycotoxin Amount Detected in Room A Feed Amount Detected in Room B Feed 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol 29. Just after hatching (Sept 15, 2015 for both eggs), the adult female was presented with acute left A three- year-old adult female roller pigeon limb lameness. She was able to ambulate in the cage used as part of a breeding pair for an ongoing but would not brood her recent hatchlings, which research study was presented with acute left limb subsequently died. Palpation of the leg revealed a large lump large lump that felt near the hip joint. Sections of affected organs were Microscopic examination of the various organs fixed in 10% buffered formalin, routinely processed, revealed neoplastic proliferation of round cells sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Osteopenia or osteoporosis is more A three-year-old adult female roller pigeon used likely to occur in adult birds and results in a as a part of a breeding pair for an ongoing research reduction in bone mass. Typical causes include study was housed with her mate at the Poultry starvation, calcium, copper, phosphorus or vitamin D Diagnostic and Research Center animal facilities. Females in production that lack housing consisted of a large wire cage with perches, sufficient dietary calcium can experience bone water and feed. A cardboard nesting box was present resorption due to a high calcium requirement during for laying eggs and brooding hatchlings. Common examples of trauma include foot o study animals comfortable at around 25 C. The entrapment in caging material, flying into objects, breeding pair had produced two eggs laid a couple of improper handling etc. In the present clinical case, days apart (Aug 26 and 28, 2015) and were brooding we perceived that the bird had caught her foot in the th 277 65 Western Poultry Disease Conference 2016 wire caging and dislocated the femur from the hip choice of chemotherapeutic regimes. Nutritional diseases none of the previously cited reports characterized the were ruled out as the diet supplied was balanced for cell origin of the lymphosarcoma. One types of tumors in a pigeon research colony at Perdue possibility is that some of neoplastic cells were University (5). Eighty-three birds were submitted for immature or anaplastic and thus, not able to exhibit necropsy and 28 (33.
Indeed order discount kamagra chewable erectile dysfunction treatment vancouver, he was using up an old supply of vitamin C 100mg kamagra chewable mastercard impotence venous leakage ligation, not procured from our specially-tested stock cheap kamagra chewable 100 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction reasons. Instead, several molars and one upper front tooth appeared to have large infections! This proved to be insufficient to make them appear at his kidneys so amounts were dou- bled. We sent him back to the dentist whose dental microscope and painstak- ing procedure would surely give him the final cleanup so much needed this time. After this final microscopic cleaning, we expected to see a little im- provement on his blood test, but we were astonished to see his results (Dec. We advised him to have the colon checked to see if there was anything suspicious on the inside. Only zinc ox- ide and eugenol was used; we had tested many such products and always found them pure. Or had unsafe plastic strips been used to contain and polish the wet cement-like mass before dry- ing? He had only three days left before his flight; we could not persuade him to extend his stay to tend to his edema problem. He agreed to return to the microscope dentist for complete removal again, by air abrasion; (this does not enlarge the hole). He rushed right over to yet another dentist for the approved zinc oxide and eugenol. Summary: If Mark had lessons to learn about patience, we, too, had les- sons to learn. It would be better to extract as many as possible, before the patient is too weak or anemic to sit in the dentists chair. Like other Mexicans in Tijuana, he had become habituated to drink- ing bottled water, instead of boiling it, and soda pop as a beverage. There were still a few employees present who would be willing to sit for testing, besides some staff members. Paul assured us that he had no difficulty urinating, did not have to get up at night to visit the bathroom, and had no indigestion from a possible liver tumor. Being conscientious and very appreciative of our concern for his health, he did both scans promptly. It was much too large, so that it pushed into the bladder (large white area) above it. And at one edge, close to the 10 oclock + sign and just above it, a tiny portion of the wall was missing. He prom- ised to drink no more bottled water, soda pop, or commercial fruit juice. Nov 28 radiologist spots small nodule at wall of prostate There was not a single dental repair in his mouth! All the copper, cobalt, and vanadium in his prostate would have to come from his new beverage habit. He promised to stop eating dairy foods or sterilize them; eating yogurt was another newly adopted habit. But can a young man with no symptoms deprive himself of foods con- sidered ordinary and safe by the public? Of course, killing parasites regularly and staying off the isopropyl alcohol list would come first to stop any malignancy. Feb 17 Nodule in prostate wall is gone 42 Victoria Boelman Breast Cancer Victoria Boelman, age thirty, arrived in December. And she had al- ready gotten rid of isopropyl alcohol so her tumor was no longer producing ortho-phospho-tyrosine, my marker for malignancy. Her mouth was full of medium size amalgam fillings, fourteen in all and some plastic. The presence of D-malic and maleic anhydride implied the presence of ma- lonate before it was detoxified. Some- where ammonia was being produced in large amounts just when it could not be easily converted to urea. Besides, the breast would not have a large ca- pacity for making urea such as the liver and kidney would. But only the pyrimidine variety, so that a great excess of uridine and cytidine would be produced. And with low levels of purines, such as adenine and guanine, uric acid levels must also be low since they are derived from purines. If too much uric acid were used up, could this be explained by bacterial action, too? She was started on the usual program, and was sent to remove all metal from her teeth. And the uric acid, becoming unmasked by her new procedures, indicated hordes of bacteria were still present. The calcium level had come up and the phosphate with it, showing that the parathyroid was free of toxins at last and could make parathyroid hor- mone again. A quick check at the breast and liver tissues showed glutamic acid and glutamine were Negative. A supplement check was ordered, to make sure she had them all and was taking them all. I decided to search through my entire bacteria collection (the slides) for any clues to the responsible varie- ties. Five clostridium species, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Staphylococcus aureus were all still present at the breast. The dentist had pointed out to her that three out of four wisdom teeth pulled a long time ago appeared to have cavitations left behind. She had acquired an enlarged lymph node under her chin just recently, testimony to the streams of bacteria and toxins flowing from the mouth. Her first task was to see the special dentist for plastic removal by air abrasion. When she returned from the dental visit, the breast still had all the ma- lonates accumulated as before. Unless the malonates and metals were removed from the teeth with meticulous care, the bacteria could not be eradicated. She could schedule her follow-up ultrasound of the breast in ten days if this continued. She was instructed to floss once a day with nylon thread and brush with white iodine. If it had, would this persuade her and her husband to be patient and keep the fillings open at least till the baby was born? But while on these errands panic struck and anxi- ety sent her directly to a dentist to put fourteen temporary fillings in her mouth. The next day, January 15, only one day after the temporary fillings were put in, clostridium and lactobacillus bacteria were back in her teeth!
This pre-trial period was used to establish baseline physiological (metabolism) and behavioral (motor coordination purchase genuine kamagra chewable online erectile dysfunction treatment in lucknow, proprioception order 100 mg kamagra chewable with visa age related erectile dysfunction causes, and exploration) parameters for each mouse purchase on line kamagra chewable erectile dysfunction doctor singapore. Testing Battery All behavioral testing was conducted before body weights or food/water intakes were determined for each mouse. The test was performed in triplicate with 60 sec being the maximum allowable time for mice to grab/hold with their forelimbs and/or hindlimbs onto a wire suspended two 89 feet above a soft, padded surface. Only the maximum grab/hold time for a mouse to accomplish the task was considered for statistical analysis. The test was performed in triplicate with 60 sec o being the maximum allowable time for mice to reorient themselves 180 (head facing upward) after being placed head facing downward on a soft, o high friction surface with a negative 40 from horizontal slope. Only the maximum time for a mouse to accomplish the task was considered for statistical analysis. The test was performed one time unless a mouse demonstrated a reduced ability to turn over onto its belly (position itself in an upright position - all 4 limbs) after being placed gently on its back atop a flat padded surface. Only the maximum time for a mouse to accomplish the task (60 sec trial) was considered for statistical analysis. Mice were lifted gently by the tail, suspended briefly in mid-air, and then lowered slowly towards the edge of a table/mouse cage rack that mice were able to reach by extending their forelimbs. The test was performed one time unless a mouse demonstrated a reduced ability to grab/extend forelimbs towards an edge 2-3 cm away. The testing apparatus consisted of two compartments: a dark compartment and a light compartment. The mouse was initially placed in the dark compartment and was allowed to move freely between the light and dark compartments. The length of time that it took for a mouse to completely enter the lighted compartment, the amount of time that the mouse spent in the lighted compartment, and the total number of times that the mouse entered and exited this compartment were considered for statistical analysis. The test was performed in duplicate at four different speeds (20, 30, 40, and 60 rpm) with 60 sec being the maximum allowable time for mice to stay on a rotating bar/rough edge cylinder positioned over mouse bedding. Mice were allowed to rest for 30 sec between trials at the same speed, and for 2 min between trials at different speeds. The average length of time that a mouse remained on the bar for a given speed was considered for statistical analysis. Photobeams along the frame of the system track mouse movement within the cage and register mouse location, distance, and rearing capabilities. A mouse was placed in the center of the open- field apparatus and behavior was measured for 15 min. Locomotor activity was measured as the total distance traveled in either the center or in the periphery (in cm), as well as the basic (all horizontal beam breaks) and fine (a change in a single beam while all 92 other beams remain unchanged e. Rearing events were measured as the number of times the mouse stood on its hind legs. Anxiety was measured as the degree of avoidance the mouse showed in exploring the center of the apparatus (number of entries in the center). All mice were then fasted for 17 hours before the diets were initiated in order to establish a similar metabolic starting point. The recommended body weight reduction was 93 achieved and maintained during the dietary treatment period by adjusting the food intake of the R-fed mice every three days. At the end of the dietary treatment period the same battery of behavioral tests was performed for each mouse to evaluate the effect of the diet on the behavior of these mice. All statistical data were 94 presented according to the recommendations of Lang et al. Consistent with the well-recognized health benefits of mild to moderate calorie restriction in rodents, no adverse effects were observed in either mouse group fed a calorically restricted diet. Despite a 2023% body weight reduction, all R-fed mice appeared healthy and more active than mice in the groups fed ad libitum, as assessed by ambulatory and grooming behavior. Furthermore, nesting behavior was similar for all dietary groups (empirical observation). It is important to mention that no epileptic seizures were observed throughout this study in the Rett mice. The average daily food intakes for the wild-type and Rett groups over the pre-trial period were 4. All mice lost approximately 8- 13% body weight over the course of the 17-hour fast at the beginning of the treatment period. No significant differences in body weight were observed between the wild-type (29. Influence of Diet on Grip Strength The grip strength test was used to distinguish motor neurodevelopment deficits between the Rett mice and the wild-type control mice. Influence of Diet on Incline Latency The incline latency test measured the ability of a mouse to orient (face upward) itself against gravitational forces when placed facing downward on a o negative 40 slope. No significant differences in the incline latency to face upwards were observed between the wild-type (40. Influence of Diet on Righting Reflex 97 The righting reflex test was used to measure each mouses proprioception and reflex response to revert back on its four limbs after being placed on its back. No differences were found between the Rett and wild-type mice (all mice performed the task within 0-2 sec). Influence of Diet on Visual Placing The visual placing test was used to measure the visual proprioception of the Rett mice. Influence of Diet on the Light-Dark Compartment Test The light-dark compartment test was used to measure the ability or tendency of the mice to explore a novel environment. Influence of Diet on Rotorod Performance The rotorod was used to measure motor development, coordination, and balance in the Rett mice. No significant differences were found between the four groups in the rotorod performance at 60 rpm. These findings indicate that the Rett mice have a motor coordination/balance deficit. Influence of Diet on Open-Field Performance The open-field test was performed to measure motor defects in locomotor activity and rearing events in the Rett mice during a 15 min testing period. Total time and rest time in each zone (center and periphery) was also similar between Rett and the wild-type mice (data not shown). This latter observation further supports our rational for omitting an unrestricted KetoCal mouse group. In contrast, the performance of the Rett mice on the open-field test was not significantly different from that of the wild-type mice. Although this particular finding is not consistent with that previously observed (Shahbazian et al. More specifically, our test was performed for a total of 15 min, whereas Shahbazian et al. In the aforementioned study, the performance of the Rett mice was not significantly different from the wild-type mice after 10 min, but differences were observed at the 20 and 30 min time points (Shahbazian et al. Consistent with prior evidence that the Mecp2 mice display interaction deficiencies (Shahbazian et al.
Bipolar diathermy In bipolar diathermy buy generic kamagra chewable 100 mg online erectile dysfunction doctor in karachi, two electrodes are combined in the instrument (e kamagra chewable 100 mg on-line impotence venous leakage ligation. Local effectrosurgery Electrocoagulation: a needle or disc touches the tissue directly cheap kamagra chewable 100mg with mastercard best erectile dysfunction pills review, and burns the tissue (a grayish discharge). Electrofulguration: lighting or spark: he needle does not touch the tissue directly (it is 12 mm away). Laser surgery 62 Laser surgery is based on the emission of radiation by light amplification through a tube at a microscopic level. Use: coagulation and vaporization (carbon or steam) in delicate and fine tissues (eyes: retina detachment repair, brain, spinal cord, or gastrointestinal tract). Hemostasis with chemical and biological methods Characteristics: Easy handling, quick absorption, non-toxic, and local effects without systemic consequences. Main indications: small superficial skin varices (injection into the veins) and esophagus varix sclerotization (given to the proximity of the varix). Absorbable gelatin: Gelfoam, Lyostypt or Spongostan: powder or compressed-pad form. Absorbable collagen: Collastat: This is in the form of a hemostatic sponge, applied dry to the oozing or bleeding site. Its use is contraindicated when there is an infection or in areas where blood has pooled. Microfibrillar collagen: Avitene: This is a powder-like, absorbable material from a bovine source; it is applied dry. It functions as a hemostatic agent only when applied directly to source of bleeding. It is applied to oozing surfaces, including bone and areas of bleeding difficult to reach. Oxidized cellulose: Oxycel, Surgicel: made of cellulose, able to adsorb a large amount of blood, with blood make an artificial thrombus. Oxytocin: This is a hormone produced by pitutary gland, but is also prepared synthetically. Epinephrine: This hormone is secreted by the adrenal gland, is also prepared synthetically. Novel hemostatic agents: Indications: External bleeding where the conventional pressure dressings fail. HemCon: It is available as a chitosan-based product, made from shrimp shell polysaccharide + vinegar. Preparations for an operation Salus aegroti suprema lex esto = The well-being of the patient is the most important law. We can think of increased surgical morbidity (and accompanying cardiacvascular, hepatic, and renal diseases) as the age of the patient is increasing. Surgical indications, contraindications and risks Indications Proper evaluation of the surgical disease and risks: - Vital indications: These are involved in the case of life-saving procedures. The patient can be treated only with an operation (100% mortality without operation). Example: rupture of an abdominal aorta aneurysm - Absolute indications: These are involved in urgent procedures. Contraindications In the cases of vital and absolute indications: only in moribund patients. In the case of relative indication: decompensated accompanying diseases, does the surgery improve the survival? Surgical risks Surgical risks = risks of surgery itself + anesthesiological risks. The preoperative examinations must answer the questions of both surgeon and anesthesiologist, allowing them to give their agreed opinion in writing. Medium-risk surgery: Surgical interventions of medium severity can be classified here (the expected blood loss is less than 1000 ml), e. Operations in which 2 body cavities are opened at the same time are runnig with the highest risks. Oncological patients own problems - chemotherapeutic agents - radiotherapy (local inflammation) - decreased function of the immune system - paraneoplastic syndromes e. To have a safe general anesthesia, the patient should avoid eating (fasting 6 hours prior to surgery). Preoperative nutritional therapy First, you should consider the natural oral feeding. If it is not possible, then the nasogastric, duodenal or jejunal tubes are the most appropriate ways of feeding. The burned, tumorous, polytraumatized, and septic patients need the highst amount of energy. Slag deprivation - Diet: liquids for 2-3 days or a low-residue diet - Enema: In the case of major abdominal surgeries (or those operations which involve the intestinal system), there is a need to make the intestinal tract empty. Urinary catheter 67 It is needed in the case of long-lasted operations which are running with loss of a large amount of fluids. Thrombosis prophylaxis - Drugs: - Heparin derivatives: Na-heparin, Ca-heparin, low molecular weight heparins - Platelet aggregation inhibitors (e. Syncumar) - Physical: - early mobilization - compression (elastic bandages) - bed-side bicycle - keeping the lower extremities at a high level Psychic preparartion That is natural for the patient to fear of the operation and its unwanted consequences. He/she should carefully evaluate the indications and contraindications and choose the best possible intevention. Laparotomy on the anterior abdominal wall The direction of the incision can be: verical, transverse, or oblique. Vertical incisions: - upper, lower, middle, or total median laparotomy - paramedian laparotomy - vertical transrectal laparotomy - pararectal laparotomy Transverse incisions: - horizontal transrectal laparotomy - Pfannensteil incision Oblique incisions: - McBurney-incision - inguinal transmuscular laparotomy - paracostal laparotomy (Kocher incision) - subcostal laparotomy Vertical incisions Upper median laparotomy The incision is made from xyphoid process to the umbilicus. Advantages: insures a quick and wide exposure, quickly and easily can be elongated and closed. The advantages and disadvantages are the same as those for an upper median laparotomy. Advantage: from a small incision we can inspect both the upper and the lower part of the abdominal cavity. Total median laparotomy The incision is made from xyphoid process to the syphysis pubis. It gives an excellent exposure but injures the statistic of the abdominal wall significantly. It also makes the postoperative coughing difficult, increases the danger of pneumonia, and can cause constipation. About 2 cm right (an parallel) to the midline cut the skin, subcutaneous tissue and the anterior leaflet of the rectus sheath. Transrectal laparotomy About 2-3 cm right to the midline cut the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and the anterior leaflet of the rectus sheath. Due to the denervation of the muscles the abdominal wall becomes significanly weakened.