Additional thanks to the technical staff of the electrophysiology laboratory cheap generic kamagra effervescent canada erectile dysfunction medication insurance coverage, especially Belinda Morse buy kamagra effervescent 100 mg cheap zyprexa impotence, whose skills and constant supervision made our laboratory function efficiently and safely for our patients order kamagra effervescent with paypal erectile dysfunction numbness. Special thanks Anuj Basil, a budding electrophysiology fellow, for reviewing Chapter 12. I am greatly indebted to David Callans, who reviewed, updated, and edited Chapter 13 on catheter ablation of arrhythmias. This was an enormous amount of work without which the chapter would have been incomplete. I am eternally grateful to Eileen Eckstein for her superb photographic skills and guardianship of my original graphics, and to Angelika Boyce and Susan Haviland, my administrative assistants during the writing of each edition, for protecting me from distractions. Finally, this book could never have been completed without the encouragement, support, and tolerance of my wife Joan. Chapter 1 Electrophysiologic Investigation: Technical Aspects Personnel The most important aspects for the performance of safe and valuable electrophysiologic studies are the presence and participation of dedicated personnel. The minimum personnel requirements for such studies include at least one physician, one or two nurses (two nurses for complex ablations requiring conscious sedation), a technician with radiation expertise, an anesthesiologist on standby, and an engineer on the premises to repair equipment. With the widespread use of catheter ablation, appropriate facilities and technical 1 2 support are even more critical. This person should have been fully trained in clinical cardiac electrophysiology in an approved electrophysiology training program. The guidelines for training in clinical cardiac electrophysiology have undergone remarkable changes as interventional electrophysiology has assumed a more important role. The current training guidelines for competency in cardiac electrophysiology have been developed by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, and the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine in collaboration with 3 4 the Heart Rhythm Society (formerly, the North American Society for Pacing and Electrophysiology). The clinical electrophysiologist should have electrophysiology in general and arrhythmias in particular as his or her primary commitment. As such, they should have spent a minimum of 1 year, preferably 2 years, of training in an active electrophysiology laboratory and have met criteria for certification. The widespread practice of device implantation by electrophysiologists will certainly make a combined pacing and electrophysiology program mandatory for implanters. Recently, with the development of resynchronization therapy for heart failure, there has been an interest in developing a program to train heart failure physicians to implant devices in their patients. At the least this should be a program of 1 year, and in my opinion, should include training in basic electrophysiology. Sufficient training is necessary for credentialing, which will be extremely important for practice and reimbursement in the future. This is critical for safety, particularly with use of conscious sedation or anesthesia in patients in whom there is risk of life- threatening complications. These nurse–technicians must be familiar with all the equipment used in the laboratory and must be well trained and experienced in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We use two or three dedicated nurses and a technician in each of our electrophysiology laboratories. Their responsibilities range from monitoring hemodynamics and rhythms, using the defibrillator/cardioverter when necessary, and delivering antiarrhythmic medications and conscious sedation (nurses), to collecting and measuring data online during the study. They are also trained to treat any complications that could possibly arise during the study. An important but often unstressed role is the relationship of the nurse and the patient. The nurse–technician may also play an invaluable role in carrying out laboratory-based research. It is essential that the electrophysiologist and nurse–technician function as a team, with full knowledge of the purpose and potential complications of each study being ensured at the outset of the study. A radiation technologist should also be available to assure proper equipment function and monitor radiation dose received by patients and laboratory personnel. An anesthesiologist and probably a cardiac surgeon should be available on call in the event that life-threatening arrhythmias or complications requiring intubation, ventilation, thoracotomy, and potential surgery should arise. This is important in patients undergoing stimulation and mapping studies for malignant ventricular arrhythmias and, in particular, catheter ablation techniques (see Chapter 14). We use anesthesia for all our atrial fibrillation ablations, and for ablative procedures in patients with fragile hemodynamics to P. Anesthesia is also extremely useful in elderly patients because of the frequent paradoxical response to standard sedation. Although conscious sedation is usually given by laboratory staff, in the substantial minority of laboratories, anesthesia (e. A biomedical engineer and/or technician should be available to the laboratory to maintain equipment so that it is properly functioning and electrically safe. It cannot be stated too strongly that electrophysiologic studies must be done by personnel who are properly trained in and who are dedicated to the diagnosis and management of 1 2 3 4 arrhythmias. This opinion is shared by the appropriate associations of internal medicine and cardiology. Equipment The appropriate selection of tools is of major importance to the clinical electrophysiologist. Although expensive and elaborate equipment cannot substitute for an experienced and careful operator, the use of inadequate equipment may prevent the maximal amount of data from being collected, and it may be hazardous to the patient. However, a complete evaluation of most supraventricular arrhythmias, which may require activation mapping, necessarily involves the use of multiple catheters and several recording channels as well as a programmable stimulator. Thus, an appropriately equipped laboratory should provide all the equipment necessary for the most detailed study. In the most optimal of situations, a room should be dedicated for electrophysiologic studies. This is not always possible, and in many institutions, the electrophysiologic studies are carried out in the cardiac hemodynamic–angiographic catheterization laboratory. A volume of more than 100 cases per year probably requires a dedicated laboratory. This is the current practice in more than 90% of centers and is likely to be the universal practice in the future. It is important that the electrophysiology laboratory have appropriate radiographic equipment. The laboratory must have an image intensifier that is equipped for at least fluoroscopy, and, in certain instances, is capable of cine-fluoroscopy if the laboratory is also used for coronary angiography. To reduce radiation exposure, pulsed fluoroscopy or other radiation reduction adaptations are required. This has become critical in the ablation era, when radiation exposure can be prolonged and risk of malignancy increased. Currently the best systems are pulsed and digitally based, which reduces the radiation risk and allow for easy storage of acquired data. Newer systems which markedly reduce radiation exposure enable the electrophysiologist to move catheters at a distance or in the absence of the fluoroscopic system.
Te term order cheap kamagra effervescent line erectile dysfunction doctor in columbus ohio, ischemia purchase kamagra effervescent 100 mg on-line erectile dysfunction bp meds, denotes inadequate At delivery purchase kamagra effervescent 100mg without prescription impotence of psychogenic origin, meconium staining of the amniotic fuid blood fow to cells or organs so that their normal function- indicates fetal distress. Manifestations in these infants Diagnosis 295 Sarnat and Sarnat staging of hypoxic- Box 17. In addition, the infant must be kept warm and his blood Duration Less than 24 hr 2–14 days Days–week pressure maintained. Potassium needs to be avoided during Outcome Good Variable Death, severe defcits frst 24 hours. After delivery, hypoxia is characterized by dyspnea and cyanosis, in particular, appearing within minutes Prevention of birth and is secondary to respiratory failure and Careful monitoring of the fetus during labor and prompt circulatory insufciency. Te following features are accompanied by bad as 80% of survivors develop neurologic sequelae. A neonate prognosis: who receives signifcant resuscitation at birth and who goes Severe encephalopathy characterized by faccid coma, on to show signs of encephalopathy should be assessed by apnea, absent oculocephalic refexes, refractory sei- Sarnat Staging between 24 and 48 hours after birth. Absence of spontaneous respiration and persistence Differential Diagnosis of abnormal neurologic signs at 2 weeks of age. Downe’s scoring system for assessing the severity of Metabolic Acidosis, alkalosis and organic acidemia the respiratory distress in term infants (Table 17. Poor lymphatic clearing of alveoli cated by a 0 and severe respiratory distress by a score of 10. In India, incidence appears to Note: Score Action needed be relatively less (–1%) among live births, rising to about 0–4 Less than 40% oxygen 8% among preterm (less than 32 weeks) infants. Reduction or absence of a sub- distress in preterm neonates stance, surfactant, that normally covers the surface epithe- Feature Score 0 Score 1 Score 2 lium of the air passages is said to be the fundamental lesion Chest movement Equal Respiratory lag See-saw respiration (Table 17. As a result, alveolar collapse and lack of ade- Intercostal retractions None Minimal Marked quate expansion occur. Pulmonary capillaries secrete fbrin that gets precipitated to form eosinophilic hyaline mem- Xiphoid retractions None Minimal Marked branes over the bronchioles and alveoli. Tese membranes Nasal faring None Minimal Marked make the exchange of gases in the lungs difcult. Auscultatory fndings are poor air entry and and most reliable test for testing the lung maturity and, widespread crepitations over both lungs. All possible eforts must, therefore, be made by the Diagnosis obstetricians to avoid premature labor so that gestational and pulmonary maturity is attained. Other measures, Chest X-ray reveals ground-glass appearance and promi- especially in unavoidable premature induction of labor and nence of bronchial air shadows, the so-called air broncho- diabetic mothers with risk of premature delivery include: gram pattern, extending beyond the left border of the heart. Administration of steroids (dexamethasone or beta- An X-ray taken at a later stage may show absolutely opaque methasone) 48–72 hour before delivery in case of lung feld, the so-called white-out lungs (Fig. Gener- fetuses of 32 week or less gestation, especially if leci- alized, but patchy atelectasis occurs little later. Of special Respiratory distress syndrome can be suspected intrana- interest is the early-onset group B streptococcal infection tally in susceptible situations (maternal diabetes) by the (the late-onset group B streptococcal infection causes following tests: meningitis). Important diferentiating points are: Te disease is manifested with dyspnea, apnea and shock, nearly always before the infant is 3 hours old. Surfactant (endotracheal) frst dose to symptomatic premature infants soon after birth or during the frst few hours of life (early rescue). Complications Tese may well be secondary to prematurity or in relation to management. Pulmonary: Pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pneu- mothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage, bronchopulo- monary dysplasia, leak syndromes and superadded sepsis/pneumonia and subglottic stenosis. Tis causes the dose of sodium bicarbonate can be monitored by the patches of atelectasis and emphysema leading to pH of the arterial blood. Te net result is ventilation perfusion mismatch ending Broad spectrum antibiotic cover (say ampicillin/ up as respiratory failure. Exogenous surfactant, instilled endotracheally, meconium and neurological and respiratory depression yields gratifying results (Table 17. Natural surfactants followed by varying degree of respiratory distress devel- (derived from animal source, say calf are superior because oping in frst few hours of birth and persisting for several of their sufactant-associated protein content. Prevention Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, Avoidance of premature deliveries and thereby a major complication, is the most frequent cause of prevention of pulmonary immaturity. Chest X-ray shows overinfated lungs (areas of hyper- Diagnosis expansion) and segmental atelectasis, hetrogenous Echocardiography assists in diferentiating it from cyanotic opacities, fat diaphragm, retrosternal lucency, bilateral congenital heart disease. Tis includes persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, transient tachypnea of the newborn, spontane- Prognosis ous pneumothorax, lung malformations and cardiac dis- Prognosis is unfavorable. Etiology Prevention It is secondary to delayed clearance of fetal lung fuid, occurring usually in fullterm neonates. Frequency is Reduction in postmaturity is the most important route to higher in neonates who are delivered by cesarean section. As a consequence, alveoli are full of retained of shoulder and endotracheal suction under laryngoscopic fuid which tends to inhibit gas exchange. However, it Tachypnea or minimal respiratory distress (usual pre- can be cut down to 30–40% with ventilatory support. Te term refers to severe respiratory distress as a result of persistent elevation in pulmonary resistance due to failure of normal circulatory transition at birth. Diuretic-related: Dyselectrolytemia, osteopenias Treatment Steroid-relasted: Neurologic sequelae It is in the form of only symptomatic measures such as: Beta agonist-related: Enhanced large airway instabil- Monitoring of heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen ity in infants with tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. As the retained fuid is absorbed Subglottic stenosis, airway granulomas and pseudopolyps by the lymphatics, respiration shows improvement. Within tend to persist in adolescence, warranting surgical interven- 24–72 hrs, recovery is usually complete. Consequent upon insult to neonate’s lung tissue from baotrauma and oxygen toxicity, there is release of infamma- Clinical Features tory mediators. Tis is followed by increased permeability, Manifestations include respiratory distress on top of other resulting in leakage of water and protein and, later, fbrosis features of sepsis such as feeding difculty, poor activity and cellular hyperplasias. Diagnosis Clinical Features Diagnosis is by and large clinical supported with: Manifestations include tachypnea and respiratory distress. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a clinical diagnosis in a preterm infant who received ventilator support and Treatment supplemental oxygen in frst week of life or longer followed by bouts of sepsis and inadequate nutritional intake. For nosocomial infections—cephalosporins plus It includes congenital heart disease, interstitial pneumo- amikacin nia, recurrent aspiration, recurrent pneumonias, sur- Prognosis factant protein defciency, pulmonary lymphangiectasia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Alter- body tissues so much and so that the body demands are not natively, chest tube drainage may prove life-saving. Based on cardiac output and fow: Low cardiac output Triggering factors include frequent handling, envi- and high cardiac output ronmental heat, rapid rewarming, vigorous suction, sud- Advanced trauma life support classifcation: den fexion of neck and lung infation (head paradoxical z Class 1: Upto 15% blood loss refex). Te fundamental pathologic defect appears to be z Class 2: 20–25% blood loss z Class 3: 30–35% blood loss an immaturity of the medullary respiratory center which z Class 4: 40–50% blood loss. In addition, systemic manifestations due to involve- the diagnosis and treatment of infection. Besides this syndrome, difcult or traumatic delivery as also Diagnosis premature delivery may also be accompanied by perinatal infections.
When H0 is true and the assumptions 2 2 are met purchase kamagra effervescent 100mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction san antonio, X is distributed approximately as x with 1 degree of freedom purchase kamagra effervescent online pills erectile dysfunction treatment chandigarh. The first step in calculating the test statistic is to compute the common median of the two samples combined safe 100mg kamagra effervescent can erectile dysfunction cause infertility. We now determine for each group the number of observations falling above and below the common median. If the two samples are, in fact, from populations with the same median, we would expect about one-half the scores in each sample to be above the combined median and about one-half to be below. If the conditions relative to sample size and expected frequencies for a 2 Â 2 contingency table as discussed in Chapter 12 are met, the chi-square test with 1 degree of freedom may be used to test the null hypothesis of equal population medians. Since 2:33 < 3:841, the critical value of x2 with a ¼ :05 and 1 degree of freedom, we are unable to reject the null hypothesis on the basis of these data. We conclude that the two samples may have been drawn from populations with equal medians. We note that if n1 þ n2 is odd, at least one value will always be exactly equal to the median. One solution is to drop them from the analysis if n1 þ n2 is large and there are only a few values that fall at the combined median. Or we may dichotomize the scores into those that exceed the median and those that do not, in which case the observations that equal the median will be counted in the second category. Median Test Extension The median test extends logically to the case where it is desired to test the null hypothesis that k! If 2 conditions as to sample size and expected frequencies are met, X may be computed and compared with the critical x2 with k À 1 degrees of freedom. Reducing an observation’s information content to merely that of whether or not it falls above or below the common median is a waste ofinformation. If, for testing the desired hypothesis, there is available a procedure that makes use of more of the information inherent in the data, that procedure should be used if possible. Such a nonparametric procedure that can often be used instead of the median test is the Mann–Whitney test (5), sometimes called the Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Since this test is based on the ranks of the observations, it utilizes more information than does the median test. The two samples, of size n and m, respectively, available for analysis have been independently and randomly drawn from their respective populations. Hypotheses When these assumptions are met we may test the null hypothesis that the two populations have equal medians against either of the three possible alternatives: (1) the populations do not have equal medians (two-sided test), (2) the median of population 1 is larger than the median of population 2 (one-sided test), or (3) the median of population 1 is smaller than the median of population 2 (one-sided test). If the two populations are symmetric, so that within each population the mean and median are the same, the conclusions we reach regarding the two population medians will also apply to the two population means. Fifteen laboratory animals served as experimental subjects, while 10 similar animals served as controls. We wish to know if we can conclude that prolonged inhalation of cadmium oxide reduces hemoglobin level. To compute the test statistic we combine the two samples and rank all observations from smallest to largest while keeping track of the sample to which each observation belongs. Tied observations are assigned a rank equal to the mean of the rank positions for which they are tied. Critical values from the distribution of the test statistic are given in Appendix Table L for various levels of a. If the median of the X population is, in fact, smaller than the median of the Y population, as specified in the alternative hypothesis, we would expect (for equal sample sizes) the sum of the ranks assigned 13. For this example the decision rule is: Reject H0 if the computed value of Tis smaller than 45, the critical value of the test statistic for n ¼ 15; m ¼ 10, and a ¼ :05 found in Table L. When we enter Table L with n ¼ 15; m ¼ 10, and a ¼ :05, we find the critical value of wa to be 45. This leads to the conclusion that prolonged inhalation of cadmium oxide does reduce the hemoglobin level. When this is the case we may compute T À mn=2 z ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (13. Mann–Whitney Statistic and the Wilcoxon Statistic As was noted at the beginning of this section, the Mann–Whitney test is sometimes referred to as the 13. Indeed, many computer packages give the test value of both the Mann–Whitney test (U) and the Wilcoxon test (W). These two tests are algebraically equivalent tests, and are related by the following equality when there are no ties in the data: mmþ 2n þ 1 U þ W ¼ (13. As we see this output provides the Mann–Whitney test, the Wilcoxon test, and large-sample z approximation. Group 1 subjects were employed by the City of Asheville, North Carolina, and group 2 subjects were employed by Mission– St. At the start of the study, the researchers performed the Mann–Whitney test to determine if a significant difference in weight existed between the two study groups. Weight (Pounds) Group 1 Group 2 252 215 240 185 195 220 240 190 302 310 210 295 205 270 312 212 190 202 200 159 126 238 172 268 170 204 268 184 190 220 170 215 215 136 140 311 320 254 183 200 280 164 148 164 287 270 264 206 214 288 210 200 270 170 270 138 225 212 210 190 265 240 258 182 192 203 217 221 225 126 Source: Data provided courtesy of Carole W. May we conclude, on the basis of these data, that patients in the two groups differ significantly with respect to weight? Prior to treatment, researchers studied the blood gas levels in the two groups of rats. May we conclude, on the basis of these data, that, in general, subjects on saline have, on average, lower pO2 levels at baseline? Smirnov, two Russian mathematicians who introduced two closely related tests in the 1930s. Smirnov’s work (7) deals with the case involving two samples in which interest centers on testing the hypothesis that the distributions of the two-parent populations are identical. The test for the first situation is frequently referred to as the Kolmogorov–Smirnov one-sample test. The test for the two-sample case, commonly referred to as the Kolmogorov–Smirnov two-sample test, will not be discussed here. The sample is a random sample from a population with unknown cumulative distribution function F(x). If, however, there is a discrepancy between the theoretical and observed cumulative distribu- tion functions too great to be attributed to chance alone, when H0 is true, the hypothesis is rejected. When values of D are based on a discrete theoretical distribution, the test is conservative. When the test is used with discrete data, then, the investigator should bear in mind that the true probability of committing a type I error is at most equal to a, the stated level of significance. The test is also conservative if one or more parameters have to be estimated from sample data. We wish to know if we may conclude that these data are not from a normally distributed population with a mean of 80 and a standard deviation of 6. The sample available is a simple random sample from a continuous population distribution. Critical values of the test statistic for selected values of a are given in Appendix Table M.
Then purchase generic kamagra effervescent on line erectile dysfunction pills in south africa, an assessment of the measures validity and reliability in the population of interest to the clinician should be evident 100 mg kamagra effervescent for sale erectile dysfunction treatments diabetes. The distress caused by these difficulties and its alleviation by urogynecological interventions are the information sought by clinicians and that should guide the management of patients order kamagra effervescent 100mg amex erectile dysfunction injections cost. In the area of sexual function, the only reproducible and consistent method of reporting these outcomes is with well- designed, validated questionnaires. Epidemiology of surgically managed pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence. Practice patterns of physician members of the American urogynecologic society regarding female sexual dysfunction: Results of a national survey. Problems with sexual function in people attending London general practitioners: Cross sectional study. Women’s perception of sexuality around the menopause: Outcomes of a European telephone survey. Secular trends in self reported sexual activity and satisfaction in Swedish 70 year olds: Cross sectional survey of four populations, 1971–2001. Report of the international consensus development conference on female sexual dysfunction: Definitions and classifications. Urinary incontinence in both sexes: Prevalence rates and impact on quality of life and sexual life. Coital incontinence: Impact on quality of life as measured by Kings health questionnaire. Sexual function in women before and after suburethral sling operation for stress urinary incontinence: A retrospective questionnaire study. A new instrument to measure sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. New method for continuous measurement of nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity. The clitoral photoplethysmograph: A new way of assessing genital 223 arousal in women. Development of a sexual function questionnaire for clinical trials of female sexual dysfunction. A methodology study to validate a structured diagnostic method used to diagnose female sexual dysfunction and its subtypes in postmenopausal women. Changes in sexual attitudes and lifestyles in Britain through the life course and over time: Findings from the National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal). Self-report assessment of female sexual function: Psychometric evaluation of the brief index of sexual functioning for women. Effect of androgens combined with hormone therapy on quality of life in post-menopausal women with sexual dysfunction. Correlates of placebo response in the treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: A preliminary report. The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status. Short scale to measure female sexuality: Adapted from McCoy female sexuality questionnaire. The use of the sexual function questionnaire as a screening tool for women with sexual dysfunction. Profile of female sexual function: A patient-based, international, psychometric instrument for the assessment of hypoactive sexual desire in oophorectomized women. Assessing sexual function in well women: Validity and reliability of the Monash women’s health program female sexual satisfaction questionnaire. Sexual function after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence. Sexual dysfunction is common in women with lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence: Results of a cross sectional study. However, one needs a qualitative method of assessing not only the type but also the severity of the condition. This requirement is not only needed clinically but also as a research tool in order to compare different groups and monitor the outcome of interventions. As a result of this, questionnaires are widely used in clinical settings for this purpose. A full appraisal of the use of such tools in the entirety of bowel disease is beyond the scope of this chapter, which will therefore focus on pelvic floor disorders—in particular, fecal incontinence and constipation/evacuatory disorders. Questionnaire assessment of bowel function is a challenge due to the fact that normal bowel function varies widely not only within an individual but also between individuals. In addition, these ranges overlap between bowel disorders and pelvic floor disorders. As a result, questionnaires lack sensitivity and specificity for particular pelvic floor disorders. In particular, emphasis was put on the need to develop tools that assess the severity and quality of life of those patients with incontinence. The committee justified the questionnaires as providing methods for the standardized collection of data from patients relating to incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms . Empirical evidence is required to show that a questionnaire is measuring what it was supposed to do and is robust and repeatable (psychometric properties): having therefore validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change [2,3]. There has been a little guidance from the major gastroenterology or colorectal societies to suggest which bowel-specific questionnaires should be used both for research or clinical practice. This advice is difficult to give, however as there are no highly recommended tools to date with established reliability and validity that are “Grade A” for bowel specific or global pelvic floor function. It is clear that questionnaire assessment of urinary incontinence in particular is far more developed than equivalent tools for bowel-related pelvic floor disorders . Parks in 1975 was one of the first to stratify fecal incontinence to assess clinical outcome and he divided this into four grades of severity based on the consistency of stool lost (continent, incontinence to flatus, incontinence to liquid, and incontinence to 226 solid stool). It was later appreciated that it was not only the loss of stool that was important to record, but also how frequently this occurred. Subsequently, the frequency of incontinent episodes was included in the Wexner summative score. Events surrounding and leading up to the incontinent episode became added features, to include the degree of fecal urgency and pad usage in the further development by the St. Questionnaires initially focused on symptom severity; however, changes in symptom severity do not always correlate with a clinical change. The focus subsequently and appropriately has moved away from the severity of symptoms but on the impact of these symptoms on lifestyle, and so detailing this, quality of life tools have been introduced. This makes it difficult to introduce newer tools, as comparative studies such as systematic reviews and meta-analysis become more of a challenge to complete.
Comparison of clinical features of physiological and pathological jaundice in Principles of Management neonates Phototherapy and exchange transfusion are the two major Parameter Physiological jaundice Pathological jaundice efective therapeutic modalities available today trusted kamagra effervescent 100 mg erectile dysfunction doctors in pa. Additional options include pharmacotherapy in the form of phenobar- Onset More than 24 hours of birth Less than 24 hours of birth bital purchase kamagra effervescent on line erectile dysfunction young male, agar-agar buy generic kamagra effervescent 100mg line erectile dysfunction divorce, albumin infusion, n-mesoporphyrin and Serum Slow Rapid: 0. With light sources of this range, 311 Clinical methods of detection of neonatal Box 17. A small portion gets oxidized to Blanching Blanching the skin of tip of nose, sternum, abdomen, palms and soles biliverdin. A common observation during photo-therapy be made as follows: is the bleaching of the exposed areas. Te areas of skin that z Face: 5 mg/dL remain covered continue to have yellow touch. Whether liver z Chest and upper abdomen: 10 mg/dL z Lower abdomen, thighs and upper arm: 12 mg/dL also plays signifcant role during photoexposure is being cur- z Thighs and upper arm: 12 mg/dL rently investigated. Icterometer It is now generally opined that blue light is superior to This is a noninvasive method which is more accurate and less sub- white light. The tool used is a transparent plastic with fve graded yellow sources are far better. Most neonatal units employ stand- stripes of diferent shades corresponding to the serum bilirubin levels. Alternatively, It is pressed against the tip of the nose (in case of very dark skin, gums make a better option). Tese lamps can be Transcutaneous bilirubinometer mounted with refectors in frames. The smaller size, focused area, lower scatter and higher irra- photoprobe is pressed against the skin of forehead or sternum (in case of very dark skin, a drop of blood on a flter paper make a better diance. Following analysis by the computerized spectrophotometer, acceptability to nursing staf. Such a phototherapy unit delivers about 200 foot can- dles of light to the infant. Te only problem with blue light is that it interferes with reasonable observations of the baby. Alternatively, white day-light lamps/tubes are reasonably efective and may be employed. A unit with a combination of both blue and white light tubes may also be employed. Length of Phototherapy Just 24–48 hours exposure is generally long enough to bring down serum bilirubin level to safe limits. Tough many authorities insist on giving continuous therapy, there is evidence to the efect that intermittent exposure is almost equally good. Te yellow color of the skin disappears or regresses much earlier than the return of serum bilirubin to near normal. It is, therefore, desirable that serum bilirubin estimation is done at intervals of 12 hours. In case 1500–2000 g 10 mg/dL of the male neonate, the external genitalia too need to be 1000–1500 g 7 mg/dL covered to prevent gonadal insult. Less than 1000 g 5 mg/dL Contraindication Mode of Action Congenital erythropoietic porphyria. Te value of phototherapy in lowering unconjugated hyper- Side Effects bilirubinemia is widely accepted. Immediate In order to understand its mode of action, it should z Loose motions (greenish or dark-brown) are due to be remembered that bilirubin absorbs blue-green light high content of photodegeneration products 312 baby from blood) and to replace the blood by healthy donor blood. Tus, overloading of the circulation as also congestive cardiac failure are avoided. Indications Any nonobstructive jaundice with serum bilirubin level of 20 mg/dL or more in fullterm and 15 mg/dL in preterm infants Kernicterus irrespective of serum bilirubin level Hemolytic disease of the newborn under the following situations: All above, plus z Cord hemoglobin 10% or less z Cord bilirubin 5 mg/dL or more Fig. It disappears soon after cessation of Choice of Donor Blood phototherapy with no permanent sequelae Te donor blood should be fresh (less than 3 days old). Te amount needed for an adequate exchange is about Delayed z Retinal damage and possible retardation of brain 160 mL/kg (double the blood volume). Also, it should be made sure that the z Delayed puberty because of long-term adverse blood is slowly warmed to infant’s temperature. If citrated or heparinized donor blood is used, one Directed at nursing staf: Headache and giddiness. Tis relatively new technique employs As a precaution, some authorities like to give injections of light from a fberoptic source which is fanned out on a calcium gluconate at regular interval when using citrated cummerbund wrapped round the neonate’s torso. Unlike the Warning Signs during Exchange conventional phototherapy in which irradiance is maximal Tese include vomiting and crying, grunting respiration at the body surface nearest to the light source, irradiant energy in this technique is uniformly distributed. It is as efective as the hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, acidosis, thromboembolism, conventional phototherapy. Te mother Delayed Complications can pick up the baby without discontinuing phototherapy. While considering the late problems that may arise from It, therefore, does not interfere with mother-baby bonding. Te hemo- Remove excess bilirubin and other harmful substances globin should, therefore be estimated every week during (say, Rh positive cells which have become noxious to the frst month and then every fortnightly. Te hemo- globin of less than 7 g % during frst 2 or 3 weeks may be Obstruction/disappearance of intrahepatic bile duct 313 an indication for a small top-up transfusion. Te two most important causes are Fever, profuse sweating, feeding difculty, skin rash, pro- neonatal hepatitis syndrome (discussed later in this very gressive pallor and even hepatosplenomegaly may be chapter) and extrahepatic biliary atresia See Chapter seen. Te topic is discussed in details in Portal thrombosis, generally due to sepsis (at times Chapter 30 (Pediatric Hepatology and Pancreatology). Recent times have seen increasing recogni- diagnosis by X-ray studies, a laparotomy is immedi- tion of its genetic defciency in various ethnic groups. Males mg/kg/day to the newborn, enhances the activity of the sufer more than females though female carriers may also enzyme, glucuronyl transferase. For details, See Chapter 32 (Pediatric prepared to deal with the load of bilirubin liberated Hematology). Tere is no point in giving phenobarbi- Neonatal hepatitis, or the so-called giant-cell hepatitis, tal to an infant who is already jaundiced (it will take may manifest any time during the frst six weeks of life. Familial and higher occur- usefulness and also cause side efects such as drowsi- rence in siblings has also been recorded. Multinucleated giant cells with complete loss with severe hyperbilirubinemia, a single dose of Sn- of normal pattern of hepatic lobules and increased fbrous mesoporphyrin may control hyperbilirubinemia and tissue around necrotic liver cells as also in the portal tracts eliminate the need for phototherapy. Extrahepatic bile efect is supposed to be related to inhibition of the ducts are normal. Frequent breastfeed- ency frm) ing cuts down enterhepatic circulation by resorption Moderate hepatosplenomegaly (Fig. Te term, cholestasis (chole meaning bile, stasis meaning stoppage), denotes decrease or absence of bile fow into Diagnosis the duodenum so that there is a retention in blood of all Liver function tests are grossly abnormal. Diferential diagnosis is mainly from Failure of hepatocytes to secrete bile extrahepatic biliary atresia (Table 17. Rhesus Hemolytic Disease (Rh Isoimmunization) About 1 in 5 mothers with Rh negative blood group have trouble with their babies.