Adverse left ventricular remodeling and incident heart failure in community-dwelling older adults purchase cipro 1000mg free shipping bacteria questions and answers. Diastolic dysfunction beyond distensibility: adverse effects of ventricular dilatation purchase cipro american express bacteria que causa la gastritis. A noninvasive method for assessing impaired diastolic suction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy purchase on line cipro antibiotics for dog acne. Pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: diagnosis and management. Echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic function can be used to guide clinical care. Restrictive left ventricular filling pattern does not result from increased left atrial pressure alone. Elevated left ventricular filling pressure after maximal exercise predicts increased plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients with impaired relaxation pattern of diastolic filling. Role of left ventricular stiffness in heart failure with normal ejection fraction. Time course of right ventricular pressure-overload induced myocardial fibrosis: relationship to changes in fibroblast dependent post-synthetic procollagen processing. Myocardial stiffness in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction: contributions of collagen and titin. Hypophosphorylation of the Stiff N2B titin isoform raises cardiomyocyte resting tension in failing human myocardium. Transcriptional and posttranslational modifications of titin: implications for diastole. Diastolic heart failure—abnormalities in active relaxation and passive stiffness of the left ventricle. Diastolic stiffness of the failing diabetic heart: importance of fibrosis, advanced glycation end products, and myocyte resting tension. Relation of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and their prognostic power in chronic stable heart failure to obesity status. Factors associated with outcome in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: findings from the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Study (I-Preserve). Comorbidity and ventricular and vascular structure and function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a community-based study. Phenotype-specific treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a multiorgan roadmap. Sex differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes in elderly patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (I-Preserve) Trial. Association of obesity with left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in patients without coronary artery disease. Renal impairment and outcomes in heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis. Chronic kidney disease associated mortality in diastolic versus systolic heart failure: a propensity matched study. Pulmonary hypertension in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a community-based study. Transition from chronic compensated to acute decompensated heart failure: pathophysiological insights obtained from continuous monitoring of intracardiac pressures. Left ventricular systolic performance, function, and contractility in patients with diastolic heart failure. Plasma biomarkers that reflect determinants of matrix composition identify the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic heart failure. Impaired chronotropic and vasodilator reserves limit exercise capacity in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction. Cardiovascular features of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction versus nonfailing hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy in the urban Baltimore community: the role of atrial remodeling/dysfunction. Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography. Optimal noninvasive assessment of left ventricular filling pressures: a comparison of tissue Doppler echocardiography and B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with pulmonary artery catheters. Burden of systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction in the community: appreciating the scope of the heart failure epidemic. Pseudonormal mitral filling is associated with similarly poor prognosis as restrictive filling in patients with heart failure and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Effects of vasodilation in heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction implications of distinct pathophysiologies on response to therapy. Hospitalizations due to unstable angina pectoris in diastolic and systolic heart failure. Effect of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition on exercise capacity and clinical status in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a randomized clinical trial. The angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor Icz696 in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a phase 2 double-blind randomised controlled trial. Exercise training in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Blood-pressure lowering in intermediate-risk persons without cardiovascular disease. Effect of angiotensin receptor blockade and antihypertensive drugs on diastolic function in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction: a randomised trial. Characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with preserved systolic function hospitalized for heart failure. Intracardiac pressures measured using an implantable hemodynamic monitor: relationship to mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Prediction of all-cause mortality based on the direct measurement of intrathoracic impedance. Wireless pulmonary artery haemodynamic monitoring in chronic heart failure: a randomised controlled trial. Physician-directed patient self- management of left atrial pressure in advanced chronic heart failure. Developing therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: current state and future directions. Adverse Left ventricular remodeling and incident heart failure in community-dwelling older adults. Longitudinal changes in ejection fraction in heart failure patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction.
Severe dehydration with volume depletion can lead to cutaneous vasoconstriction with decreased Hyperthermia and Hypothermia: the Effects of Heat and Cold 427 sweating order generic cipro infection symptoms, impaired heat loss and hyperthermia cipro 250mg amex bacteria jokes humor. Cocaine buy cipro pills in toronto antibiotics during labor, methamphet- amine and aspirin intoxication can all cause hyperthermia through excess heat production. In severe salicylate intoxication, there is excess heat pro- duction as salictylates uncouple the bonds formed by oxidative phospho- rylation in skeletal-muscle mitochondria. Core temperature begins to rise in 1–3 min with a constant rate of increase after 3 min. Rectal temperatures, which are an approximate reﬂection of core temperature, rise from 37. Once outside the sauna and back at normal room temperature, the body’s core temperature returns to normal in approximately 30 min. Individuals with severe heart disease are at risk in a sauna because of the strain on the cardiovascular system from the body’s attempt to adapt to the high environmental temperatures and the potential risk of hyperthermia. Exercise, Body Temperature, Humidity and Exhaustion Individuals in a sauna are exposed to extremely high temperatures in a very dry environment. Thus, increase in body temperature is due solely to exposure to a hot environment. In ordinary life, individ- uals are usually exposed to a hot environment, and possibly a high humidity, while undertaking physical activity. Experiments have been conducted in which trained athletes have engaged in continuous and strenuous activity (on bicycle ergometers) to the point of complete exhaustion in a hot environment. The body temperature increased due to both the heat of the environment and the heat generated by the metabolism of work. In a hot dry environment (40°C, 10% relative humidity), endurance increased from an initial 48 ± 1. In view of these studies, it appears that a high core temperature is the critical factor for exhaustion during exercise in a hot environment. With exposure to a hot environment, whether it be dry or humid, exhaustion sets in and physical exertion ceases with a core temperature of approximately 40°C. Even if there is no physical activity, when core temperature approaches 40°C, the body senses danger. Thus, the individuals in the sauna, exposed to a hot dry environment without physical activity, leave the sauna when their core temperature is approximately 40ºC. Hypothermia The term hypothermia is used when an individual’s body temperature is below 95°F (35°C). Accidental hypothermia occurs in alcoholics going to sleep or passing out in a cold environment, individuals lost while hiking or skiing, and those who have been immersed in ice-cold water. This last condition, immersion hypothermia, is extremely dangerous because of the more rapid loss of heat in water than in air. Body heat is lost three times faster in water than in dry, cold air of the same temperature, as water conducts heat 20 to 25 times faster than dry air. The latter conditions impair the ability of the body to maintain normal temperature. This is because their surface area in relation to body mass is considerably greater than that of adults. In newborn infants, vasomotor reﬂexes are underdevel- oped and the heat-regulating center is insufﬁcient for at least several hours after birth. Thus, hypothermia is more frequent in the ﬁrst few weeks of life and is associated with a very high mortality. The body’s defense against cold is vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin and muscles so as to conserve heat, combined with an increase in generation of heat. The degree of thermogenesis that occurs is directly proportional to the amount of brown fat. In adults, who have almost no brown fat, it is rare that chemical thermogenesis increases the rate of heat production more than 10–15%. In infants, who have a large amount of brown fat, the increased heat production is as much as 100%. The thickness of an individual’s subcutaneous fat also affects Hyperthermia and Hypothermia: the Effects of Heat and Cold 429 whether hypothermia will develop and how soon. Because of the thicker layer of subcuta- neous fat, women endure cold better than men. Compensatory increases of heat production by the body, such as that caused by shivering, can maintain body temperature to about 90°F (32°C), where impairment of cerebral functioning, manifested by analgesia, clouding of consciousness, hallucinations, and slowing of reﬂexes, begins. Respiration becomes less frequent and more shallow and there is a decrease in the pulse rate. Below 85°F, the ability of the hypothalamus to regulate temperature is completely lost. Alcohol is said to contribute to the fatal outcome by causing cutaneous dilatation of peripheral vessels and thus loss of heat. However, a number of indi- viduals have been reported as surviving deep hypothermia because of alcohol intake. This survival is attributed to protection against cardiac ﬁbrillation by the alcohol. This protective effect has been reproduced in dogs as well as individuals during surgery with body temperatures reduced to 25–26°C. Increase in circulation and reduction of oxygen consumption in the brain might explain some of the protective effects of alcohol. In water at 15° C, obese individuals cool at a rate that may be hardly discernable, while a thin individual’s body temperature can fall by 2. In very cold water, exercise accelerates the rate at which the body temperature falls, because increased ﬂow of blood to exercising muscles carries away more heat than is produced by the exer- cise. The individuals who die under these circumstances probably do not die primarily of hypothermia. Death is probably caused by cardiovascular etiology due to the effects on the heart of the sudden cooling of the skin, i. Both ventricular and atrial ectopic beats are common during the ﬁrst few minutes of cold immersion. Rarely, the arrhythmias progress to ven- tricular ﬁbrillation, followed by sudden death. Ventricular ﬁbrillation caused by these mechanisms probably accounts for the occasional case of a swim- mer’s diving into cold water only to ﬂoat up or sink to the bottom, dead. Older individuals may be especially susceptible to a cardiovascular mecha- nism of death in cold water immersion. Reﬂex disturbances of breathing could also account for some of the rapid deaths following immersion in cold water. Sudden cooling of the skin fol- lowing immersion in water with a temperature approaching 0°C causes marked reﬂex stimulation of breathing for a few minutes such that breathing can often not be controlled voluntarily. Post-immersion deaths can occur following the rescue from cold water of individuals who appear to be in no danger of dying. The individual may be conscious when taken out of the water, only to lose consciousness when taken into the warmth of the facility. These observations were subsequently reproduced in experiments, though the body cooling was restricted to safe limits.
In the next section purchase cipro uk antibiotics for dogs at feed store, we will discuss the three main drugs of abuse purchase genuine cipro bacteria in florida waters, a number of other drugs of abuse cipro 250 mg without prescription virus kansas city, and some drugs that cause deaths because their lethal potential is not appre- ciated or because they fall into the hands of a child. In fasting individuals, 20–25% of a dose of alcohol is absorbed from the stomach and 75–80% from the small intestine. Following ingestion of alcohol on an empty stomach, peak blood alcohol concentration occurs within one half to 2 h (average 0. The delay in reaching peak blood alcohol is directly proportional to the size of the meal and inversely proportional to the amount of time between food and alcohol consump- tion. The makeup of the meal appears to have very little inﬂuence at all on the rate of absorption. Because alcohol is soluble in water, it is present in the body tissue in direct relation to the amount of water content of the tissue or ﬂuid. Speci- mens with high water content, such as blood or vitreous, will have high concentrations of alcohol compared with tissues such as the liver or brain. Forensic pathologists tend to deal in whole blood when performing alcohol determinations, while clinicians often use serum or plasma. It is often not realized that there may be a signiﬁcant difference in the alcohol concentration of arterial blood and venous blood in the absorp- tive phase, with arterial blood up to 40% higher in alcohol concentration than venous blood. At autopsy, one should obtain the blood from either the femoral or subclavian vessels, with the former preferred. Alcohol disperses throughout the body in proportion to the water content of the tissue. Vitreous, with a high water content, has proportionally more alcohol than blood when at equilibrium. Because of its isolated location, the equilibration of vitreous alcohol with blood alcohol lags by 1–2 h. They will tell what the blood alcohol level Interpretive Toxicology: Drug Abuse and Drug Deaths 517 was 1–2 h prior to death after one compensates for the greater amount of water in the vitreous. In the absorptive phase of alcohol, vitreous alcohol levels are lower than in the blood. If the individuals stop drinking, their blood alcohol will continue to rise for a short time as absorption continues, pla- teaus, and then begins to go down. Vitreous alcohol, which lags behind blood alcohol, will continue to rise as the blood alcohol plateaus. At the point of equilibration of blood and vitreous, the vitreous alcohol will be higher numerically because of the greater amount of water in the vitreous. Thus, only in the absorptive phase will vitreous alcohol be lower than blood alcohol. We prefer muscle from the thigh since it is isolated from other organs, unlike psoas muscle, and appears to be fairly resistant to decomposition. The amount of alcohol produced endogenously is to a degree related to the length of decom- position. It should be noted that not in all decomposed bodies will there be endogenous production of alcohol. In moderately decom- posed bodies, no alcohol was found in 29%; exogenous alcohol in 33%; endogenous alcohol in 19%, and no determination was reached in 17%. In severely decomposed bodies, no alcohol was found in 13%, exogenous alco- hol in 30%, endogenous alcohol in 13%, and no determination was reached in 43%. Thus, in the study of 130 cases of decomposing bodies, in only 23 cases was there presumed production of alcohol postmortem in the blood. In embalming a body, the blood is, for the most part, removed and replaced by embalming ﬂuid. Alcohol determination, however, can still be performed on either the vitreous or muscle. A small amount of embalming ﬂuid will enter the vit- reous ﬂuid and produce minor dilution. Thus, any ethyl alcohol present in the vitreous ﬂuid should be presumed to have been ingested. It is metabolized to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetic acid, and acetic acid to carbon dioxide and water. Blood alcohol in males is metabolized at an average rate of 15 mg/dL per hour (a range of 11–22 mg), and in females at 18 mg/ dL per hour (a range of 11–22 mg). The urine alcohol concentration is in equilibrium with blood at the time it is formed. The urine in the bladder generally lags behind blood concentration until the blood concentration reaches its peak. The urine concentration then remains higher than the blood values during the declining blood alcohol concentra- tions. By virtue of this, urine alcohol concentrations are not useful for predicting blood alcohol. Alcohol impairs visual acuity, adaption to both light and darkness, discrimination of colors, persistence or speed of response to visual stimulation, focusing, etc. It has been known since 1919 that the effects of acute alcohol intoxication are more pronounced when the blood level is rising than falling (the Mellanby effect). In regard to alcohol’s effect on the personality, some people become sleepy, placid, and friendly, whereas others become antagonistic, hostile, and violent. The best indication of reaction would be an account of how they have reacted at prior times when intoxicated. Of all the organ systems in the body, the most affected by alcohol is the central nervous system. Chronic alcoholics are often able to mask many of the signs of acute alcohol intoxication, though there is still physiological impairment. Thus, a chronic alcoholic with a blood level of 150 mg% may superﬁcially appear sober, though there is still impairment in the reﬂexes, visual acuity, memory, con- centration, and judgment. Most deaths caused by acute alcohol intoxication occur with blood alcohol levels of 400 mg% or greater. Chronic alcoholics have been apprehended operating motor vehicles with blood alcohols of 450–500 mg% and have actually survived alco- hol levels as high as 600–700 mg%. In such a case, one may see blood alcohol levels in the 300 mg% or high 200 mg% range. The vitreous, however, will show signiﬁcantly higher alcohol levels, indicating that the individual is in the metabolizing phase. Methanol is oxidized by the liver to formaldehyde, which in turn is oxidized to formic acid. Symptoms of acute methanol poisoning are weakness, nausea, vomiting, headache, epigastric pain, dyspnea, and cyanosis. The symptoms may occur within half an hour after ingestion or may not appear for 24 h. If a fatal amount of methyl alcohol has been ingested, the afore- mentioned symptoms will be followed by stupor, coma, convulsions, hypo- thermia, and death.
Oxidative Stress A close relationship exists between inflammation and oxidative stress 750 mg cipro with amex bacteria 25 degrees. Inflammation in the lungs is 13 associated with a disturbance in the oxidant-antioxidant balance cipro 500mg free shipping infection xpk, with a rise in oxidative stress cheap 1000mg cipro with visa bacteria metabolism. Reactive oxygen species cause oxidative injury to cells, resulting in up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators both in the lungs and systemically. Oxidative stress also causes lipid peroxidation, and the resulting oxidized low-density lipoprotein is an important mediator of atherosclerosis. These changes are associated with a greater predisposition to thrombin generation. A number of other mechanisms are likely involved with shared genetic associations. Renin-Angiotensin System The lungs have high concentrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme, and chronic hypoxia can activate 1 the renin-angiotensin system, which has potent proinflammatory and profibrotic effects. Up-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system also causes endothelial dysfunction and may lead to vasoconstriction and thrombosis. Coronary ischemia also likely results in diastolic dysfunction, and activation of the renin angiotensin system also has a role in cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. Static hyperinflation is characterized by a reduced inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity at rest, and 17 is associated with a reduced cardiac chamber size and impaired left ventricular diastolic filling. Dynamic hyperinflation is reflective of air trapping during exertion, and this has a strong inverse correlation with the oxygen pulse, an estimate of stroke volume, on cardiopulmonary exercise testing, suggesting a lower stroke volume as the thoracic lung volume increases. The mechanisms underlying the effects of lung hyperinflation on cardiac performance are likely related to the effect on ventricular filling, reduced venous return, or associated dyspnea, resulting in activation of the renin-angiotensin system, salt and fluid retention by the kidneys, and relative volume overload. Pulmonary hypertension is frequently seen (see Chapter 85) but is rarely severe, and can cause impaired left ventricular filling even in patients with only mildly elevated 18 pulmonary arterial pressures. These abnormalities are more commonly seen in either late stages of the disease or during acute exacerbations. A number of medications, including β-agonists, anticholinergics, and theophylline, may also be proarrhythmogenic. These symptoms are nonspecific and the diagnosis should always be confirmed by spirometry. This is both due to a lack of awareness as well as the substantial overlap in symptoms. In patients with an established diagnosis of one condition, the symptoms of the other are commonly overlooked and ascribed to the primary condition. In patients with symptoms that are disproportionate to the severity of the underlying disease, coexisting lung and cardiovascular disease should be suspected and investigated. Although differentiation of these conditions is frequently possible, physiologic changes associated with heart failure can confound the detection and severity grading of airflow obstruction. Peribronchial edema can cause1 bronchial hyperreactivity and bronchoconstriction, resulting in airflow obstruction (cardiac asthma). For these reasons, it is recommended that spirometric evaluation of lung disease be done when the patient is as euvolemic as possible. In some patients with coexisting severe disease, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may become necessary to understand the relative contributions of each disease to exercise limitation. Nonpharmacologic therapy with pulmonary rehabilitation is associated with significant improvement in dyspnea, respiratory quality of life, and exercise capacity, independent of severity of lung disease, and the presence of cardiac comorbidity should not be considered a contraindication for exercise training (see Chapter 53); rehabilitation exercises have clear benefits in cardiovascular disease as well. Although these medications alleviate dyspnea and improve exercise capacity and respiratory quality of life, there 20 remains debate about whether some of these medications increase the risk of cardiovascular events. A similarly increased risk of arrhythmias has also been reported for long-acting β-agonists. The data for the short-acting anticholinergic drug ipratropium are mixed, with some but not all studies showing a slightly greater risk of arrhythmias. Although metaanalyses of safety data for long-acting antimuscarinics such as tiotropium suggested a greater risk of arrhythmias in those with significant underlying cardiac disease, a recent large randomized controlled study to address safety issues found that there is no increased risk of arrhythmias 21 with the use of tiotropium, even in those with established cardiac disease. Post hoc safety studies have also suggested that the risk of cardiac events and mortality is not increased by tiotropium, although clinical studies excluded those with recent cardiac events or with unstable cardiac disease, in whom 22 caution should be exercised. Use of theophylline and oral steroids is also associated with atrial fibrillation (see also Chapter 38). Pooled analyses suggest that roflumilast, a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, has a 23 safe cardiac profile, but post-approval phase 4 data are not yet available. Retrospective data suggesting there might be an increased risk of arrhythmias with the use of azithromycin provoked the issuance of a black box warning from the U. There is notable concern for worsening airflow obstruction with the use of beta blockers, although clinical trials suggest this is clinically not significant, especially for cardioselective medications. Retrospective data also suggest that their use is associated with a reduction in exacerbation frequency, likely due to their cardioprotective effects, although this remains to be confirmed in randomized trials. Retrospective studies also suggest a beneficial effect on exacerbation frequency with the use of statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor 1 blockers; however, a large randomized study failed to show any benefits of statins on exacerbation rates. These exacerbations are associated with heightened pulmonary and systemic inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased sympathetic tone, lung hyperinflation, and cardiac arrhythmias. Exaggerated signals along these pathways confer a greater risk of coronary ischemia, rupture of vulnerable plaques, ventricular cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure. The risk of an acute myocardial infraction 1 to 5 days after an exacerbation is doubled, 24 and subclinical ischemia is likely more common. Indeed, levels of troponin and N-terminal brain natriuretic protein are elevated during exacerbations and are both associated with higher mortality rates. Congestion along the peribronchovascular bundle can increase airway reactivity and cause a decompensation in respiratory status that can be clinically difficult to distinguish from usual acute exacerbations. Cardiovascular disease associated with connective tissue diseases is described elsewhere (see Chapter 94). Clinical examination usually reveals Velcro-like crackles at lung bases, which can be mistaken for the basilar crackles heard in heart failure. Bronchial Asthma Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by reversible airflow obstruction. Lung function findings in bronchial asthma usually include airflow obstruction that is reversible on administering bronchodilators. Bronchial asthma is often readily diagnosed by the history, physical examination, and spirometry when it occurs early in life. However, older patients presenting with cough, wheezing, and nocturnal dyspnea should be additionally evaluated for cardiac causes. Congestion along the bronchovascular bundle in patients with left ventricular failure may result in cardiac asthma. Cardiac asthma is diagnosed clinically, although mild or negative bronchoprovocation test results with methacholine support the diagnosis. Although the data to support the use of bronchodilators for cardiac asthma are scant, a trial of bronchodilators is often recommended to determine if bronchial asthma coexists.
The presence of petechiae does not indicate that death was due to strangulation generic cipro 250 mg without prescription antibiotics for uti diarrhea, because they can be seen in a number of other conditions generic cipro 1000mg free shipping antibiotics and yogurt, including natural disease buy cipro 250mg lowest price antibiotics for uti cats. Thus, in a study of 79 surviving victims of attempted strangulation (both ligature and manual), who showed stigmata of strangu- lation, conjunctival petechiae were observed in 14 victims, only eight of whom became unconscious, and with only four experiencing sphincter incontinence. Hanging In hanging, asphyxia is secondary to compression or constriction of the neck structures by a noose or other constricting band tightened by the weight of the body. Incomplete suspension, with the toes or feet (less com- monly the knees or buttocks) touching the ground, is extremely common. Death is caused by compression of the blood vessels of the neck such that an insufﬁcient amount of oxygenated blood reaches the brain. Obstruction of the airway can also occur, either through compression of the trachea or, when the noose is above the larynx, elevation and posterior displacement of the tongue and ﬂoor of the mouth. Blockage or compression of the air passages is not necessary to cause death in hanging. A number of individuals have hanged themselves with the noose above the larynx and a permanent tracheostomy opening below. It is rare and, in our expe- rience, is usually seen only in individuals with advanced degenerative disease of the cervical spine, such as osteoarthritis, in combination with complete suspension of the body, a sudden drop, and, frequently, obesity. The weight of the head (10–12 lb) against a noose is sufﬁcient to occlude the carotid arteries and cause death. The authors have seen cases where individuals have hanged themselves from a bedpost while lying in bed next to a sleeping spouse. Depending on the area of the country and the sex of the victim, hanging is either the second or third most popular method of suicide. In jails and prisons, convicts typically tear sheets into strips as well as using T-shirts, undershorts, trousers, or even socks. The authors have seen a number of cases where the victims have actually handcuffed their hands behind themselves. The most common point of suspension is the side of the neck, followed by the back and the front. At the time of suspension, the noose typically slips above the larynx, catching under the chin (Figure 8. This furrow generally does not completely encircle the neck, but rather slants upward toward the knot, fading out at the point of suspen- sion — the knot (Figure 8. If the knot is under the chin, its site might be indicated by an abrasion or indentation beneath the chin. A rope will give a deep, well-demarcated, distinct furrow, often with a mirror-image impression of the twist of the rope on the skin (Figure 8. This furrow initially has a pale yellow parchment appearance, with a congested rim. If the ligature is a soft material, the groove might be poorly deﬁned, pale, and devoid of bruises and abrasions (Figure 8. In some cases, the lower margin of the groove is pale, with the upper margin red, caused by postmortem congestion of vessels. The two loops might pinch the skin between them, producing a hemorrhagic strip of skin (Figure 8. If the noose is a belt, there are usually two parallel ligature marks on the neck where the upper and lower edges of the belt dig into the skin (Figure 8. If a soft noose, such as a towel, is used and the body is cut down shortly after death, no marks may be present on the neck. The furrow will be shallow and broad with a wide ligature such as a strip of cloth. Rarely, scratch marks will be seen above and below the ligature mark, where the victim tried to undo the noose. In most hangings, the face is pale and the tongue is protruding and “black” from drying (Figure 8. Exceptions to this usually involve partially suspended individuals, where the noose is tightened only by the weight of the head or the torso. In hang- ings, blood will pool in the dependent areas of the body, usually the forearms, hands, and lower legs, secondary to gravity. With time, punctate hemorrhages and Tardieu spots, caused by hydrostatic rupture of vessels, will be seen (Figure 8. Prior to removal of the noose from the neck, its nature and composi- tion, width, mode of application, location, and type of knot should be described in detail. One should describe the direction of the furrow (obliquely upward, horizontal, etc. Usually, except for ligature marks, there are no other external marks (injuries) on the body. If some are present, the medical examiner must decide whether they are self-induced, occurred during the convulsive phase preced- ing death, were produced when the body was cut down or during attempted resuscitation, occurred when a swinging body contacted other objects, or were produced by a second party, making the case a homicide. On examination of the internal structures of the neck, in more than half of the cases, there are no injuries. Of 83 consecutive hangings examined pro- spectively, only ten (12%) had fractures. This last case involved an obese woman with arthritic changes of the cervical ver- tebrae who stepped off a ladder, dropping a short distance before being fully suspended. Of the nine cases with fracture of the superior horns of the thyroid cartilage, seven were unilateral and two bilateral. Four of the unilateral fractures were contralateral to the point of suspension, two ipsilateral, and one unknown. Absence of petechiae in most hangings is because there is complete obstruction of the arterial system, so there is no pooling of blood in the head, no increased pressure, and, therefore, no pete- chiae. A dried rivulet of saliva often runs from a corner of the mouth and down the chest. In three cases, there were fractures of the cervical spine, C1–2, C3–4 and C6–7 (one in association with a fracture of the thyroid cartilage), 14 cases with fractures conﬁned to the thyroid cartilage, nine fractures of the hyoid and three fractures of the hyoid and thyroid cartilage. Asphyxia 255 Fractures were not associated with height of suspension, sex, or the width of the ligature. The best way to examine the interior of the neck in strangulation deaths, whether manual or caused by hanging or ligature, is to remove the viscera from the chest and abdominal cavities and then remove the brain. After there has been drainage through the cranial and chest cavities, the neck can be dissected in a relatively blood-free ﬁeld. Fractures of the thyroid cartilage, the cricoid cartilage or the hyoid bone can only be considered antemortem if there is blood at the fracture site. In the authors’ opinion, blood detectable only microscopically at a fracture site is insufﬁcient to prove that the fracture was antemortem. It is virtually impossible for one of two healthy adults, equally matched physically, to hang the other unless the victim was beaten unconscious or rendered helpless by alcohol or drugs. In the ﬁrst instance, one would suspect homicide by virtue of the injuries on the victim.
A hole is drilled from anterior to posterior in the distal lateral malleolus; then the detached end of the peroneus brevis tendon is threaded through the hole buy cheap cipro 1000 mg on line antibiotic for sinus infection and sore throat. It is then attached to either the calcaneus or the talus cheap cipro online master card antibiotic 93, anterior to the lateral malleolus buy cipro 500 mg amex antibiotics for breeding dogs, with a staple or by suturing into a hole in the bone. It is more functional than below-knee amputation because patients can bear weight on the end of the stump; however, success is poor in patients with vascular disease or peripheral neuropathy. The posterior flap is dissected directly from the calcaneus, carefully preserving the tough heel pad and its blood supply. The heel pad is sutured directly to the distal tibia to prevent migration and to cover the bone end. The posterior flap is then sutured to the anterior flap with interrupted sutures and a compression dressing applied. A transverse dorsal incision is made at the transmetatarsal level, and a plantar incision is made beginning at the corners of the dorsal incision and extending distally to the metatarsal heads to create a long plantar flap. The plantar flap is reflected proximally to the midmetatarsal level and tapered distally. The metatarsals are sectioned with a saw, and nerves and tendons are sectioned proximal to the osteotomies. The plantar flap is then brought over the ends of the bones and sutured with interrupted sutures to the dorsal flap. Variant procedure or approaches: Other partial-foot amputations, such as midtarsal and ray amputation, are much less common. For tendon lengthening, a longitudinal incision generally is made directly over the tendon. Subcutaneous tissues and tendon sheath are incised to expose the tendon, which is transected with a Z-type incision. The tendon is placed in its lengthened position, and the ends of the Z are closed with absorbable suture. In a tendon transfer, the tendon usually is cut close to its insertion and transferred to a new bony insertion, which often requires a separate incision. The tendon is attached to the bone either with a metal staple or by suturing it into a drill hole in the bone. Variant procedure or approaches: Achilles tendon lengthening is used to bring the ankle out of equinus. A posterior tibial tendon lengthening and/or posterior ankle capsulotomy may accompany the procedure. The most commonly performed stumps incorporate anterior and posterior flaps of equal length. The underlying muscles (hamstrings and quadriceps) are either sewn to each other (myoplasty) or to bone (myodesis). In a guillotine, or open amputation, the stump is not fashioned (tissues are not closed) until later. This is a multistage procedure used for dirty, traumatic amputations, infection, or above-knee amputations with questionable survival and usually is done as a lifesaving measure. Internal fixation of part of the remaining femur may be indicated in traumatic amputations. The condition of the soft tissues may dictate the level and/or type of flaps used. A long posterior flap, which is 2–3 times the diameter of the leg in length, is then made. The bone is exposed anteriorly, and the anterolateral neurovascular structures and muscles are transected and ligated as appropriate (Fig. The bone is then transected with a bone saw, and the posterior structures are transected and ligated as appropriate. The amputated leg and foot are then removed from the table, and the posterior flap is tapered and shaped for closure (Fig. Finally, a drain is placed (sometimes), and either a compression dressing or an immediate postop cast is applied. A: The tibia is transected 1 cm proximal to the skin incision, and the fibula is transected an additional 1 cm proximal to the level of the tibial transection. With a guillotine amputation, the bone and soft tissues are transected very quickly in guillotine fashion at the midtibial level. Their inability to perform exercise limits the usefulness of preop Hx in evaluating cardiopulmonary reserve and often necessitates invasive studies for full evaluation. Subarachnoid anesthesia has the advantage of limited spread of the block above the level of surgery, while obtaining adequate blockade of the sacral roots that are resistant to low-dose epidural techniques. Epidural anesthesia allows for extending the duration of anesthesia and for the administration of postop epidural analgesia. Typical drugs and doses include: subarachnoid—75 mg of 5% lidocaine in 5% dextrose (controversial) with morphine 0. Compartment syndrome is a true emergency and must be treated within minutes of recognition. Conventional devices may be used to measure intracompartmental pressure, which usually is abnormal if > 30–35 mm Hg (normal = < 30 mm Hg). Fasciotomy of the thigh involves incising the skin and fascia over the thigh and debriding any necrotic tissue. The wound is left open for later redebridement, delayed primary closure, or skin grafting. Thus, the fasciotomy begins a multistage procedure of incision and debridement with subsequent reconstruction. Compartment syndrome is a true emergency and must be treated within minutes of recognition. There are four compartments in the leg: anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior (Fig. A four-compartment fascial decompression can be performed through two incisions—medial and lateral. A medial longitudinal incision is made just posterior to the tibia; through this incision, the superficial and deep posterior compartments are identified and the fascia incised in longitudinal fashion. A straight, lateral, longitudinal incision is made, and the deep fascia overlying the anterior and lateral compartments is identified. Cross-section of the left leg, middle lower third, showing the four compartments with associated peripheral nerves. Frink M, Hildebrand F, Krettek C, Brand J, Hankemeier S: Compartment syndrome of the lower leg and foot. Regional anesthesia: Either subarachnoid or epidural blocks are useful in the absence of systemic infection or severe coagulopathy.
An adequate local anesthetic will not only make the patient more comfortable but cipro 750mg mastercard virus check, by reducing the pain during the arterial cannulation generic 500mg cipro with mastercard antibiotic coverage chart, also reduce the risk of peripheral artery spasm discount 750mg cipro with amex east infection. Access Sites Possible access sites for coronary angiography are the femoral artery and the radial artery. Although the radial access approach is associated with fewer vascular and bleeding complications, femoral access remains the most commonly used in the United States. In addition, accessing from the femoral artery usually grants an easier advancement of the catheter to the aortic root due to the lack of tortuosity in the descending aorta. The head of the femur, visualized under fluoroscopy, can be used as a landmark (see Chapter 19, Fig. Puncture should be performed with the needle leveled at half the head of the femur. Multiple punctures should be avoided to reduce the risk of bleeding and vascular damage. The needle is then removed and a sheath advanced around the wire into the artery (see Fig. Once the sheath is fully advanced in the artery, the dilator 37 and wire are removed, and the sheath is flushed with saline. Verification of the correct position of the sheath in the vessel can be ascertained simply by drawing blood from the sheath. Radial access should always be considered first, before resorting to the femoral approach, especially 38 for diagnostic coronary angiography. The procedure for the sheath insertion is similar to that described for the femoral artery. However, when using radial access, a modified Allen test should be performed on both hands (see Chapter 19). The modified Allen test is performed by applying pressure on both the ulnar and the radial artery of one wrist to occlude them while the patient keeps the hand elevated with the fist clenched for approximately 30 seconds. The compression on the ulnar artery is then removed while pressure is maintained on the radial artery. If the ulnar artery supply to the hand is adequate, the color quickly returns to the hand and the test is normal. Conversely, if color does not return, the ulnar artery supply is insufficient, meaning that the radial artery supports the entire circulation of the hand. In this case the radial artery should not be punctured, because this may compromise the blood flow to the hand. This rule may be bypassed if an oximeter is placed in the thumb during radial artery occlusion, and resurgence of pulsation and oxygenation is documented after its initial disappearance (“Barbeau method”). However, the left subclavian artery may be less tortuous than the innominate artery. The ideal puncture site is 1 to 2 cm proximal to the radial styloid with the wrist slightly hyperextended. After removing the needle, a 5F or 6F sheath is inserted in the radial artery over the wire. A small incision 1 mm long can be made on the skin to facilitate advancement of the sheath. Because the radial artery is extremely vasoactive, the risk of spasm is high, especially in women; therefore, as soon as access is obtained, an intra-arterial spasmolytic agent such as nitroglycerin (100 to 200 µg) or 35 verapamil (2. A hydrophilic-coated sheath can further reduce the likelihood of spasm and regional pain. Radial access appears associated with fewer periprocedural events and should be preferred whenever possible. It should be noted, however, that the axillary-subclavian axis can be tortuous and calcific, particularly in elderly patients, and it can therefore be technically difficult to advance the catheter to the aortic root. Brachial access is very uncommon, but unlike radial access, avoids the small-caliber arteries in the forearm, and therefore may be required in the event that radial access is not available or fails. On the other hand, there is no alternative blood supply to the forearm in case of closure. Basic Technique Coronary angiography is an invasive procedure based on the intravascular advancement of angiographic guidewires and catheters from a percutaneous access using the Seldinger technique. After a valved sheath is inserted into the access site artery (see Access Sites), a flexible metallic J-tipped guidewire is inserted through the sheath and advanced slowly under fluoroscopic imaging through the arterial axis until the aortic root is reached. A fluid-filled catheter is then advanced over the angiographic guidewire, while the wire itself is maintained in place. Once the catheter is in the aortic root, the wire is fully extracted from the sheath, and the catheter is flushed and connected to the contrast media injection apparatus. Under fluoroscopic imaging, and with the help of small injections of contrast, the coronary ostium is engaged 40 with the tip of the catheter. At this point, the x-ray tube is positioned appropriately (see projection section), and angiographic images are obtained while injecting contrast directly into the cannulated coronary artery. Catheters for Diagnostic Procedures There are several types of diagnostic catheters, characterized by differing lengths, diameters, and shapes. In general, catheters are composed of an external layer, which is not thrombogenic or lubricious, and by a lubricious inner layer. These two layers include a fine metallic core required to confer stability, improve maneuverability, and reduce the risks of kinking. Through a female Luer-Lok, the hub connects the catheter to the contrast injection system and facilitates the catheter grip and rotation with winged tips. The body, mostly strong and rigid, transmits to the tip the movements impressed on the hub by the operator. The tip can be divided, starting from the distal end, into three curves: primary, secondary, and tertiary, which allows the best possible fit to the aortic root curvature. Catheter length can vary from 80 to 110 cm (32 to 44 inches), depending on the anatomic characteristics and the access site (radial, brachial, or femoral). However, the standard length for adult left-heart catheterization by both the radial and the femoral approach is 100 cm (40 inches), while 80 cm is suitable for brachial access. Among the diagnostic catheters, the most commonly used are the Judkins and the Amplatz catheters. Judkins catheters can be used both for the femoral and for the right/left radial approach. Catheter selection depends on the approach (radial or femoral), the height of the patient, and the aortic diameter and curvature. Moreover, the presence of a dilated aortic root or the anatomy of particularly tall patients (>180 cm [72 inches]) may increase the length required between the primary and secondary curves and might require the selection of a catheter with a longer arm. It should be specified that the catheters just described are the ones most frequently used to perform diagnostic coronary angiography. Additional catheter types are available, although less frequently used, in case of specific coronary anatomic variables. There, the catheter is rotated clockwise to direct it toward the left sinus of Valsalva.